The Simplest Question in Marketing

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Advertising, Reputation Management

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tucson marketingThe simplest question in marketing seems to be the hardest question the answer. It’s a question that I see businesses struggle with almost every day. So, what’s the question?

What sets you apart from your competitors?

So, I know this seems like an easy enough questions to answer, but the reality is that I rarely receive a good answer. In fact, the number one answer given is, customer service. Now, I think this is the number one answer because it’s the easiest one to give. This answer requires no thought or effort. The problem, is that you’re wrong.

So how do you answer this question?

First, stop saying customer service. It’s not what sets you apart because all of your competitors are saying the same thing. Now, that being said, if you are receiving a tremendous amount of positive reviews, you can then say customer services. What do I mean by tremendous? I would say that you need to be receiving at least 5 positive reviews on sites like Yelp, Facebook or Google every week.

Second, look at your company’s products and services. If you sell the same product as someone else, what makes you different? It can actually be a couple of things. It could be the way you provide your services, the price or even a combination of the two.  Let me explaian; maybe when your company comes to work on my yard, you also help to educate me on things I can do to make my yard maintenance easier or maybe when I take my car to be washed, you also check my tire pressure, wishsheild wiper fluild and wiper blades. It’s these little things that will help to set you apart from your competitors. Price is pretty easy, are you less expensive? Do you have better packages? You get the idea.

Third, this one is a little more complicated. It’s complicated because it is very much open to interpretation by the customer. It’s experience. To be clear, I don’t mean the amount of experience you have. I have almost 10 years of experience in digital marketing and no one ever really seems to care. I mean, the customer experience. This is actually what I shoot for. This is because I’m not the least expensive out there (thanks India), the products and services I offer are not exclusive to my company, and as I said before, everyone says customer service. So what sets me apart is the customer experience. With me you are going to get a real and honest conversation. I’m not going to sugar coat things and I’m not going to sell you something you don’t need. This is because I believe that an honest and forthright conversation is the best way to help my clients get on the right digital path to success. Sounds corny I know, but it’s what I believe.

I challenge you to answer this question for yourself. You might surprise yourself. It may even lead to some good marketing ideas and increased revenues.

Why buy social media management

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Advertising, Digital Marketing, Facebook, Social Media, Uncategorized

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social media management

 

Social media management can take up a lot of time for a company. In most cases it ends up being pushed to the back burner and never fully untilized. This is a giant mistake as social media is a vital component to any company’s marketing plan and online reputation.

 

 

 

Here’s What You Need to Know:

1.) Social media is like a having a second store front, and somebody always needs to be at the front desk.

Simply having a Facebook page or Twitter feed is not enough. When a customer finds you on social media and asks a question or leaves a comment, you need to be there to respond. We live in an instant gratification world, and just like someone would expect to get a quick response if they walked into your place of business with a question they will expect the same on social media. We help manage this second store front for you by posting relevant content regularly and monitoring page interactions.

2.) We know where you need to be seen.

It’s been shown that different demographics prefer different types of social medias. So simply having a Facebook page is not enough. We can help you identify which types of social medias will be relevant to your business, and we can help set them up as well.

3.) Social Media is great at building your customer base.

Media by Matt will advertise your social media profiles by using each network’s specific tools to target potential customers.

4.) Consistencyy is key.

Remember that social media is essentially another storefront for your business, and as such it needs to be “open” when your business is. Posting regularly to social media is something Media by Matt does to make sure that your social media is just as active as your actual business is.

5.) We’ll save you some time.

Creating posts for 3 to 5 days per week takes time away from running your business. We’ll post for you, monitor it, and give you feedback on what’s reaching your customer base.

Finally, at Media by Matt we provide a full service social media management product that starts at $99.00 per month. Contact s today and we will start giving your company a social boost.

 

 

Creating social media strategies

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Advertising, Digital Marketing, Facebook, Media By Matt, Social Media, Uncategorized

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rep managementCreating social media strategies can be frustrating. In fact, this is something that I struggle with myself from time to time. However, it doesn’t have to be difficult. It can in fact be fun. Below, you will find some helpful strategies for kicking your company’s social media game into high gear.

1.) Start by thinking of social media as a conversation. Yes, I said conversation. That means that if someone engages with you, you have to engage back. This is vital as it helps you to begin thinking of topics to talk about. What’s more is that is helps you think of topics that you want your customers to talk about. Maybe its questions you want them to ask or a promotion you want them to share. Either way social media is a conversation.

2.) If you are going to start a conversation by posting, then you need to post with purpose. This is very important as it will set the tone for your social media posts. I know, that is a little confusing. Let me explain. First, think of the things you see on Facebook pages, it honestly looks like some people post just to post and this gets them nowhere. When you post with purpose you are posting so that when your company’s followers see what you posted they are interested. This will greatly help drive engagement.

3.) Create themes for the days of the week. This is going to go a long way in helping you stay consistent with posting. It is also really going to help you find or create new content. For example, I am a major geek, so I post once per week things that are geek like. Sometimes it’s a movie trailer and sometimes it’s a science fact or new discovery. Whether you like geeky things or not this a great way to help me find engaging content.

4.) This is probably the most important strategy of all. Do not product puke on your social media profiles. That means that you are not just going to post product. It is a major turn off to followers and is not the best way to create engagement. If you have product to post please do so, however, you should try and limit it to three posts for week. Oh, and events don’t count as product posting.

As you can see with just four easy strategies you can start posting with purpose and creating engaging content fo your social media profiles. However, there is no denying that this will still take a considerable time commitment. More often than note companies believe that they can and will make this commitment. However, they quickly lose site of the goal and return to just posting product and not really paying attention when people engage with them. Remember to keep your eye on the prize and if you need help just let me know.

Website design And What The Client Needs To know

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Ecommerce Website Design, website design

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website design

Website design is not just a job for the company building your website. Believe it or not there is a lot of responsibility that falls on the client as well. I know this is shocking, right? Let me explain.

As a website design company it is my job to make sure I am giving you the website you want. To be honest that is the extent of my responsibility. As the client it is your job to make sure that you are providing clear direction. It is also your job to provide content and changes in a timely manner. I say this because in the long run it saves both parties time and money.

Here are some quick tips.

Choosing to build a website

OK, so you need to know a couple of things before you decide to just start calling design companies.

First, you need a basic layout of your content. This will include things like the number of pages forms, photos/galleries, etc.

Second, you will need an idea (a good idea) of what you are looking for as far as a design. an easy way to do this is to create a list of 5 websites that you like. Write down what it is you like about each site. For example the color, layout, menu style, functionality, etc. Then make a list of websites you don’t like. For each site write down what it is you don’t like. Again you looking for colors, layout, forms, menus, functionality, etc. This will be a big help when talking with a design company.

Choosing a design company

You will typically get what you pay for. That being said, you should choose a company that will meet all of your needs at a budget friendly price. Be aware of any monthly costs that be come from this and make sure it fits into a monthly budget. This will allow you to stay on budget while getting all of the design and features you want and need.

Controlling costs

When you build a website there will always be costs. Costs for you and the design company. Here are a couple of tips on controlling costs.

First, you need to have all of your content ready to go. This includes both written content and images. This will save time and in some cases money.

Second, when the design company starts on the design of the website, be as specific as possible in what you are looking for. This is especially true of change.

Third, you need to make sure that you are communicating effectively and constantly.

I hope this helps clear things up. If you have any questions please contact me and I will be happy to help.

Sales Training

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Media By Matt, Sales Training

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Internet Sales Training

So I was recently asked why it is a good thing to bring someone (like me) in to do internet sales training with sales staff on internet products.  Well, that is a very easy question to answer.

Why is it a good thing for my company to bring you out to train our sales reps? It would be a good idea because more often than not sales reps (especially those in Radio and TV) cant adequately explain the features and benefits of online advertising. Truth be told its not really their fault.  They have a million products and specials to push and internet takes a little more to understand than say a TV commercial. Beyond that most sales staff haven’t been properly trained on how to discuss the ROI (return on investment) that comes from online products. Everyday I here reps and advertisers talk about CTR (click through rate) like it is the magic number.  That behavior alone is why you have a high churn with your online advertisers.

So how do I know you are going to help? You don’t.  It really depends on two things. First, how many appointments the reps set for me to go on after the training is compete and second, how receptive the reps are going to be to the training.

What does you training cover? My training covers most online marketing products.  including, Social Marketing, search engine marketing, search engine optimization, display advertising, website design, tracking ROI, Reporting, strategy and more.

What does it Cost? Cost varies depending on your needs, the amount of time needed, if I go on sales calls and as always Hotel and either mileage or air fair.  That being said it really is a budget based program.

For Internet Sales Training Contact Us today

Tips for Facebook

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Facebook, Social Media

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Facebook managementFacebook is very probably where a lot of your customers are,  therefore it would make sense that you should have a presence there  for your business. One thing to keep in mind is that it isn’t necessarily easy to attract likes and therefore potential customers, but on that same note most people over complicate the process. Below are some pretty great tips, however none of this will matter if you are not willing to engage with your customers and invest the time to do Facebook properly

Here are 10 tips which you should find useful for your Facebook marketing.

# 1. Custom Facebook URL

When you set up your page you’ll see the URL has lot of digits and letters in it. You can change this to a custom URL to make it easier to use on business cards and documentation. It also makes your page easier to find. Simply go to Edit page, Update Info, Basic Information, Username and choose the name you want to use – preferably your business name if it is available. Take your time with this, though, as you can only change this once. You can see Facebook’s guidelines for more information. One thing to keep in mind is that you will need to achieve a certain number of likes first.

 

# 2. Upload a cover photo and button picture

Aside from the “About Page” being filled out and updated, make the most of the cover photo for your page, as it is the first thing that people will see when they come to your page. Ensure it is relevant to your business so what you do immediately stands out. Unfortunately Facebook rules that you cannot have more that 20% text on the picture, but this could be used strategically.  Use an image editor like Photoshop or Powerpoint to create your own special picture using text on it too.

For the smaller button picture: this is what will be used when you comment on your updates or other people’s pages, so I’d advise that you use your logo for this, provided it is clear when made smaller. Spiderworking.com have written a great post to help you with your Facebook cover photos.

# 3. Add apps to your page

You can add apps to your page, for example, I have a form on my Facebook for people to register for my newsletter.Some other examples would be a link to your Twitter feed, Events calendar, plus lots more. Just go to Edit page, Update Info and then Apps. You’ll find some of the most used there, however when you are on an App page, go to the “About Us” and you can add that app to your page if it is available. Also look to your vendors. Many time vendors will have a free Facebook app for you to use. These apps will make your page more interactive for visitors, which is always good.

When people visit your page, they’ll see up to four views and apps below the cover photo, and they can click to see up to twelve. You can choose which of your apps appear, as well as change the order they appear in, apart from the photos view, which always appears first.

# 4. Invite friends

Once you have created your page, invite friends to like it. These can be friends you have on Facebook already or you can use your email address book. Ask friends and family to like your page and recommend it to their network to get a head start too. Share your Facebook URL on other social networks. If you want to spend money on Facebook Adwords for likes, then that will help boost your numbers very quickly. For all of these options click on “Build Audience” at the top of your page.

# 5. Post regularly

Once your page is set up, you must keep it busy by posting updates regularly. There is no rule on how often to post, but from everything I read about Facebook ROI, people say 3 to 4 times a day works well for B2C. B2B might be different depending on what it is you do. Keep in mind that more than 3 to 4 a day can get little spammy. Not everyone has the time to post this regularly and may not even be online, but try to update at least once a day to every other day. Don’t forget the Facebook Page app for your smartphone so you can use it on the go.

# 6. Scheduling updates

Scheduling posts can be really helpful for busy people or those that aren’t online much because they are out and about running their businesses. If you can find an hour one evening or on the weekend you could schedule your posts for the whole week. Personally I use Facebook’s own scheduler and find that works really well for me. Just put a status update or picture as though ready to hit post but click on the clock in the bottom left of the box and enter the date and time you want it to be published. You can always check back on what you have there by going to Edit Page and Use Activity Log. Social Media Examiner have a great step by step guide on using Facebook Scheduled Posts.

There are lots of other scheduling apps that you can use with Facebook, but my preferences are BufferHootsuite and SocialOomph.

But don’t forget that even though you may have scheduled updates you must respond when people comment – which is what you really want them to do. Ignoring people or taking days to reply will make them stop commenting on your page and you really don’t want that.

# 7. What to post?

Facebook can be a strange creature. Although you may be on there as a business and you mainly deal with B2Bs, you can still have some fun on Facebook. Try adding up some funny pictures or jokes, ask questions and get outside the box and be creative – they are always a good talking point when people are discussing the correct (and wrong) answers.

Try and remember not to product puke. People tend to unlike pages when that is all you do.

Check your Insights to see what is working and what isn’t. Just click on the graph on your page and you can see a whole host of information there on your posts.

# 8. Link updates

I read a post on The Work at Home Woman blog recently that Facebook will show your updates in more timelines when it doesn’t have a preview box. I thought this was strange as using the Facebook preview box makes your page look a lot nicer rather than just a long URL link. So I decided to test this out on a few pages that I manage and it’s true. I am getting about 4 times more views to the text updates. Just write your post with the link included and when a preview box is automatically shown click on the X in the top right of the box to delete it. Try it yourself and see.

# 9. Ensure you give credit by linking to their Facebook page

If you are sharing a link to a post by someone else then it’s good to mention their Facebook page. To do this start with @ then type the name of their page – exactly the same as when you are tagging a friend on Facebook. NB you cannot tag a personal profile on your business page, just another business. It’s like a nod to the writer of the piece and you may even get noticed and dare I say it…..reciprocated.

# 10. Promote your updates

If you have a status update that you believe is important to your business – maybe a special offer, link to a blog you have written or news about your company – then you can pay a small amount to promote the post. This varies from $5 upwards – Facebook will tell you what the possible reach is for each amount you can choose from.

When you promote a post from your page, it will be shown in the News Feeds of more of the people who like your page than you would normally reach. You can choose to reach people who like your page or people who like your page AND their friends when you promote a post from your page – obviously the latter is better.

#11. Like your posts

I know this sounds like you would just be completely full of yourself. I mean who likes there own posts. But do it. Your friends that haven’t liked your page will this in there feed which will help increase likes and interactions.

How To Get Your Website Rankings Back

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Search Engine Optimization

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To start off, I’m going to tell you to just relax. Really….. Just relax. If your website rankings were demolished by Google’s Panda 2 update all is not lost and you are not alone. In fact there is even a road to recovery. That being said, in this entry I’m going to cover just a couple of the steps you can take to gain back your rankings after the update. However, you should be prepared, there is no overnight fix and if you are going to be serious about this you need to start thinking long term.

1.) As I said earlier is to chill out. Yes your websites rankings have dropped and yes I know that is probably affecting your overall sales and/or traffic. However, when people are in panic mode they tend to do silly things. Things like abandoning their site and starting over only to make the same mistakes or favorite thing, beefing up their already failing strategy. They also continue to listen to the same bad advice that got them in the position they are in. Finally, they look for cheap ways to solve the problem. That being said, if you can stay calm and think this through rationally you will be okay.

2.) This last Panda update cracked down on link building tactics pretty hard. They are looking at different websites and determining which ones are “spammy” or of low quality (low quality does exactly mean low pr). So that means that you are going to want to take a look at your link profile. You want to review each and every link to find the “spammy” ones. This is sometimes pretty hard to do, especially when you are looking at 10 to 100 links or in some cases thousands of links. When you are looking at your links, be objective. Remember that just because you visit a site and trust that site is not considered “spammy”.  Again, there is no simple fix, but this is a big starting point.

3.) Look over your content. This is especially if you have a blog. One area the update focused on was content. Google is specifically looking for “good content” which means that you need to make sure you are looking over everything for grammar, spelling and message. This is especially true if you are writing blogs. If you are like me and simply don’t have the best writing skills, you can check your content using spell and grammar check programs already on your computer or at www.Grammarly.com. This is also a great place to make sure your content is not being seen as plagiarism.

4.) Fire your “SEO Guy”. I know this sounds a little mean and a lot like I’m about to say hire me. But its true. The SEO world was turned upside down and has SEO companies like me working overtime to contact clients and fix link profiles.

5.) Be patient, set long term goals and stay the course. This is extremely important in SEO. Optimization changes all of the time and with Google changing the rule more drastically than ever it is important that your stay the course and adjust your tactics to reach your long term goal.

6.) A little self education. Learning a little about SEO wouldn’t hurt. In fact it will help when having conversations like SEO tactics.

After all that has been said I will leave you with this. SEO is hard, complicated and takes time. However, SEO is more important to small businesses now more than ever. For more information please contact us today.

Reputation Management

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Brand Equity, Branding, Reputation Management

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Online Reputation Management

Reputation ManagementNow more than ever it seems that people have the ability to share their experiences and thoughts about your company…..Just look at Yelp and Google. For better or worse this will only continue. So I am going to cover three best practices for online reputation management.

Step one: Be Proactive

Don’t wait for a bad review to come to your attention via a friend or co-worker. You should be looking on all kinds of different networks and review site to see what people or saying about you, sites such as Four Square, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Yahoo and Yelp. One of the best and most effective ways to do this is to simply Google your company and see what comes up. You may be surprised.

Another method of keeping up is to use a reputation management program. These companies are all over. A couple of these companies are Godaddy and Yext. These basically just track reviews on specific sites looking for reviews on your profile so there is a lot that can be missed, but that being said it can save you a little time.

Step two: Respond to negative comments

I check my clients all of the time and look to see what their customers are saying about them. If and when you get a bad review the worst thing you can do is nothing. PLEASE!!!! RESPOND!!!! Now, when I say respond I don’t mean defend yourself and I don’t mean for you to attack the customer, you need to be nice and professional. That means no calling customers out. Remember this is reputation management. You let the person know that you care about every customer and would like the opportunity to correct their negative experience. Also leave a name and way for the person to contact you. If the person does contact you encourage them to re-post and let people know that you took care of them.

Example: ASUS, a computer company had a customer post on a review site that his computer problems could not be fixed by the tech department at ASUS.  ASUS, within a couple of days contacted the customer and sent him a new computer. They of course did this after apologizing that they could not fix his problem. That is true customer service and reputation management. Because of their actions they very likely have a customer for life.

Step three: You need positive reviews

Encourage customers to post on Google and/or other review sites like Yelp when they give you a positive review verbally or via email. If you have a store front, then you should set up a computer where the customer can leave a review right then and there. This will help to offset your negative reviews and help boost sales as consumers use reviews to help them figure out which company to do business with.

There are many different thoughts on reputation management, but the bottom line is that consumers use reviews to help them shop. If you don’t know your online reputation I would go a look. You may be surprised.

If you have any questions or would like me to consult on a specific issue you might be having please contact me.

Online Reputation Management

IAB Wiki

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Digital Marketing

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IAB Wiki – Glossary of Interactive Advertising Terms

Introduction

Because our industry’s jargon and processes are unique, we’ve dedicated the IAB Wiki to be a centralized spot where marketers, agencies and interactive publishers can collaboratively populate a database of information on interactive advertising. Ultimately, this space will serve as a reference to both industry veterans and newcomers alike. We encourage you to participate in this community project. Please feel free to submit new entries as well as update existing ones at www.iab.net.


0-9

302 Redirect
The process of a server sending a browser the location of a requested ad, rather than sending the ad itself. Ad servers use 302 redirects to allow them to track activities such as ad requests or ad clicks.

3G
3G is the “Third Generation” mobile network infrastructure. As of 2007, 3G technologies were deployed by mobile operators in most of Europe, East Asia, and North America. Supports much higher data speeds than previous mobile networks, in some cases approaching wired broadband connections.


A

AAAA
AAAA (American Association of Advertising Agencies) 
Founded in 1917, the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) is the national trade association representing the advertising agency business in the United States. See the AAAA’s official Website.

AAS
See average active sessions.

ANA
ANA (Association of National Advertisers) 
The Association of National Advertisers leads the marketing community by providing its members insights, collaboration and advocacy. The ANA strives to promote and protect all advertisers and marketers. See ANA.net for more information.

ARF
ARF (Advertising Research Foundation) 
The ARF is the premiere advertising industry association for creating, aggregating, synthesizing and sharing the knowledge required by decision makers in the field. The principal mission of The ARF is to improve the practice of advertising, marketing and media research in pursuit of more effective marketing and advertising communications.

Abandonment
Abandonment is when a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction.

Abort
When a Web server does not successfully transfer a unit of content or ad to a browser. This is usually caused by a user hitting the stop button or clicking on another link prior to the completion of a download.

Activity audit
Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit..

Ad audience
The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

Ad banner
Ad banners (also known as banner ads) are one of the most dominant forms of advertising on the internet. Banner ads are a form of display advertising that can range from a static graphic to full motion video.

Ad blocker
Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

Ad campaign audit
An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

Ad click
The user activity of pressing a navigation button or hitting the enter key on the keyboard on an advertisement unit on a Web site (banner, button or text link). (See Click-through)

Ad creative pixel
A pixel request embedded in an ad tag which calls a web server for the purpose of tracking that a user has viewed a particular ad. See web beacon.

Ad delivery
Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user – server-initiated and client-initiated, which are explained in the diagrams below.

Ad download
When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.

Ad exchange
An ad exchange is a sales channel between publishers and ad networks that can also provide aggregated inventory to advertisers. They provide a technology platform that facilitates automated auction based pricing and buying in real-time. Ad exchanges’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad networks.

Ad family
A collection of one or more ad creatives. Also called an ad campaign.

Ad impression
Ad impressions are the count of ads which are served to a user. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads.

Ad impression ratio
Click-throughs divided by ad impressions. See click rate.

Ad insertion
When an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad inventory
The aggregate number of opportunities near publisher content to display advertisement to visitors.

Ad materials
The creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.

Ad network
Ad networks provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide specific technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization. Ad networks’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad exchanges.

Ad recall
A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents is exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time is asked if they remember the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.

Ad request
The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

Ad server
An ad server is a web server dedicated to the delivery of advertisement. This specialization enables the tracking and management of advertising related metrics.

Ad serving
The delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad space
The location on a page of a site in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.

Ad stream
The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).

Ad tag
Software code that an advertiser provides to a publisher or ad network that calls the advertisers ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Ad targeting
Delivering an ad to the appropriate audience. This may be done through:

Ad transfers
The successful display of an advertiser’s Web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or “transfers” the user’s browser to an advertiser’s Web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser’s Web site, an ad transfer is recorded.

Ad unit
An ad or set of ads displayed as a result of a piece of ad code executing.

Ad view
When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Add to cart
The user activity of storing merchandise in a virtual shopping cart that the user intends to later purchase from an online e-commerce website. This enables users to continue browsing and “check-out” later or alternately delete these items from the cart.

Address
A unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a Web site or marked with an @ for an e-mail address. Literally, it is how one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet.

Advertisement
A commercial message targeted to an advertiser’s customer or prospect.

Advertiser
The company paying for the advertisement.

Advertising banner
See Banner. (also called Ad Banner or Banner) – A static graphical image (GIF or JPEG files) or interactive content (Flash files) used to display an advertising unit on a web site. Most banners enable users to click on ad to be redirected to another website.

Adware
Computer software provided to the user free of charge or at a discounted price that downloads and displays advertising to support its continued development and maintenance. This software often tracks what Internet sites the user visits.

Affiliate marketing
An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Affinity marketing
Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by e-mail promotions, online or offline advertising.

Agency
An organization that, on behalf of clients, plans marketing and advertising campaigns, drafts and produces advertisements, places advertisements in the media. In interactive advertising, agencies often use third party technology (ad servers) and may place advertisements with publishers, ad networks and other industry participants.

Agency Ad Server
The ad server hosted by the advertising agency.

Aggregate Campaign Data
Data combined from several advertising campaigns to create a segment where campaign level data is not identifiable.

Alternate text
A word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting “stop” in their browser prior to the transfer of all images.Also appears as “balloon text” when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.

Animated GIF
An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images,displayed sequentially, giving the appearance of movement.

Anonymizer
An intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.

Applet
A small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user.

Applicable browser
Any browser an ad will impact, regardless of whether it will play the ad.

Artifacting
Distortion that is introduced into audio or video by the compression algorithm (codec). Compressed images may have stray pixels that were not present in the original image. See codec.

Aspect ratio
The width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).

Attribute
A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (e.g., age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (e.g., auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (e.g., visited Site X two days ago). Segment or cluster information is derived from the user’s prior online activities (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches made and clicking and purchasing behaviors). Generally, this is anonymous data (non-PII).

Audience
An audience is the group of people who visit a specific web site or who are reached by a specific ad network.

Audience Measurement
The counting of unique users (i.e. audience) and their interaction with online content. At a campaign level, this service is conducted by a third party to validate that a publisher delivered what an advertiser had requested. At the industry level, this service enables media buyers to understand which brokers of online content to negotiate with to reach a specific audience.

Audience Targeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on their shared behavioral, demographic, geographic and/or technographic attributes. Audience targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.

Audit
Third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.

Auditor
A third party independent organization that performs audits.

Avatar
A graphical representation of an individual in a game or other virtual world or environment.

Average Active Sessions (AAS): A metric specific to Digital Audio
See Average active sessions.

Average active sessions
The average number of streams of one minute or more that are active within a time period.

Average view time
Refers to the average amount of time the video ad was played by users.


B

Backbone
High-volume, central, generally “long-haul” portion of a data network.

Bandwidth
The transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed as kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps) for digital systems; the amount of data that can be transmitted over communications lines in a given time.

Bandwidth contention
A bottleneck that occurs when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single data line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each.

Banner
A graphic advertising image displayed on a Web page. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines defining specifications of banner ads.

Barter
The exchange of goods and services without the use of cash. The value of the barter is the dollar value of the goods and services being exchanged for advertising. This is a recognized form of revenue under GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles).

Behavioral event
behavioral event is a user-initiated action which may include, but is not limited to: searches, content views, clicks, purchases, and form-based information.

Behavioral targeting
Using previous online user activity (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches, clicks and purchases) to generate a segment which is used to match advertising creative to users (sometimes also called Behavioral Profiling, Interest-based Advertising, or online behavioral advertising). Behavioral targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.

Beta
A test version of a product, such as a Web site or software, prior to final release.

Bit rate
Bit rate is a measure of bandwidth which indicates how much data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. Bit rate is usually expressed in kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps).

Blog
blog (a portmanteau of the term ”web log”) is a web-published journal consisting of discrete entries (“posts”) typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first. Blogs are usually the work of a single individual, although corporate blogs often have multiple staff contributors. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning ”to maintain or add content to a blog”.

Blog Metrics
There are two concepts that surface when targeting media plans to blogs: conversations and conversation phrases. A conversation is a collection of authors/sites and their audience linked by relevant content. A conversation phrase is a combination of keywords and keyword phrases used to associate an author/site, its content and audiences to a conversation.

Bonus impressions
Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Bot
Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like search engines to discover Web sites for indexing. Short for “robot.”

Brand Awareness
Research studies can associate ad effectiveness to measure the impact of online advertising on key branding metrics.

Broadband
An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate – any bit rate at or above 256 Kbps. Cable modems and DSL all offer broadband connections.

Broadband Video Commercials
TV-like advertisements that may appear as in-page video commercials or before, during, and/or after a variety of content in a player environment including but not limited to, streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content. Broadband video commercials may appear in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content.

Browser
A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web.

BtoB/B2B (Business-to-Business)
Businesses whose primary customers are other businesses.

BtoC/B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
Businesses whose primary customers are consumers.

Buffering
When a streaming media player temporarily stores portions of a streaming media (e.g., audio or video) file on a client PC until there is enough information for the stream to begin playing.

Bug
A persistent, graphical element that appears in the video environment. Clicking on it will take the user to a website.

Bulk E-mail Folder
See Junk E-mail Folder.

Bumper Ad
Usually refers to a linear video ad with clickable call-to-action; format is usually shorter than full linear ads (i.e. 3-10 seconds) and call-to-action usually can load another video or can bring up a new site while pausing the content.

Business Visitor
A user that accesses online content in furtherance of their employment.

Button
1) clickable graphic that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executing a program; 2) buttons can also be ads. See the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelinesfor voluntary guidelines defining specifications of button ads.


C

CARU
(The Children’s Advertising Review Unit) 
Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus that reviews advertising and promotional material directed at children in all media. See CARU for more information.

CDN
See content delivery network.

CGI script
(Common Gateway Interface) 
CGI’s are used to allow a user to pass data to a Web server, most commonly in a Web-based form. Specifically, CGI scripts are used with forms such as pull-down menus or text-entry areas with an accompanying submit button. The input from the form is processed by a program (the CGI script itself) on a remote Web server.

COPPA
(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act) 
Congress enacted the COPPA in 1998 to prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, or disclosure of personally identifiable information from and about children on the Internet. Section 6502(b)(1) of the Act sets forth a series of general privacy protections to prevent unfair or deceptive online information collection from or about children, and directs the Commission to adopt regulations to implement those protections. The Act requires operators of Web sites directed to children and operators who knowingly collect personal information from children to: (1) Provide parents notice of their information practices; (2) obtain prior verifiable parental consent for the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal information from children (with certain limited exceptions for the collection of “online contact information,” e.g., an e-mail address); (3) provide a parent, upon request, with the means to review the personal information collected from his/her child; (4) provide a parent with the opportunity to prevent the further use of personal information that has already been collected, or the future collection of personal information from that child; (5) limit collection of personal information for a child’s online participation in a game, prize offer, or other activity to information that is reasonably necessary for the activity; and (6) establish and maintain reasonable procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of the personal information collected.

COPPR
(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule) 
Issued by the FTC in October 1999 the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule went into effect on April 21, 2000, and implements the requirements of the COPPA by requiring operators of websites or online services directed to children and operators of Web sites or online services who have actual knowledge that the person from whom they seek information is a child (1) to post prominent links on their Web sites to a notice of how they collect, use, and/or disclose personal information from children; (2) with certain exceptions, to notify parents that they wish to collect information from their children and obtain parental consent prior to collecting, using, and/or disclosing such information; (3) not to condition a child’s participation in online activities on the provision of more personal information than is reasonably necessary to participate in the activity; (4) to allow parents the opportunity to review and/or have their children’s information deleted from the operator’s database and to prohibit further collection from the child; and (5) to establish procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information they collect from children. As directed by the COPPA, the Rule also provides a safe harbor for operators following Commission-approved self-regulatory guidelines. See www.caru.org for more information.

CPA
(Cost-per-Action) 
Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.

CPC
CPC is the abbreviated term for both Cost-per-Click and Cost-per-Customer. Please click on the term you are looking for.

CPC (Cost-per-Click)
CPC or cost-per-click is the cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received.

CPC (Cost-per-Customer)
CPC or Cost-per-customer is the cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.

CPL
(Cost-per-lead) 
Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.

CPM
(Cost-per-thousand) 
Media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions. For example, a Web site that charges $1,500 per ad and reports 100,000 impressions has a CPM of $15 ($1,500 divided by 100).

CPO
(Cost-per-Order) 
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-per-Transaction.

CPS
(Cost-per-Sale) 
The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser’s site after the successful completion of an online sale.

CPT
(Cost-per-Transaction) 
See CPO (Cost-per-Order).

CPTM
(Cost per Targeted Thousand Impressions) 
Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18-25. The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions.

CRM
(Customer Relationship Management) 
Business practices that foster customer care, loyalty, and/or customer support.

CSS
(Cascading Style Sheet) 
A stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. CSS provides a more elegant alternative to straight HTML to quickly specify the look and feel of a single Web page or a group of multiple Web pages.

Cable modem
A device that permits high speed connectivity to the Internet over a cable television system.

Cache
Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Caches can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache.

Cache busting
The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimize or prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user or proxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.

Cached ad impressions
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.

Caching
The process of copying a Web element (page or ad) for later reuse. On the Web, this copying is normally done in two places: in the user’s browser and on proxy servers. When a user makes a request for a Web element, the browser looks into its own cache for the element; then a proxy, if any; followed by the intended server. Caching is done to reduce redundant network traffic, resulting in increased overall efficiency of the Internet.

Campaign
In traditional marketing, an campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme. In digital advertising, a campaign will refer to a set of ad buys from a specific ad network or publisher.

Case Study Road Show
The IAB’s Case Study Road Show (CSRS) brings a day of cross-platform, cross-objective digital case studies to media professionals in various cities. The Spring 2012 CSRS occurs in the following cities:

Chat
Online interactive communication between two or more people on the Web. One can “talk” in real time with other people in a chat room, typically by typing, though voice chat is available.

Chat room
An area online where people can communicate with others in real-time.

Click
A ”click” can denote several different things.

Click-stream
1) the electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and from page to page within a site; 2) a comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Web site or third party ad server.

Click-through
The measurement of a user clicking on a link that re-directs the user’s web-enabled device to another Web destination.

Click-within
Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.

Click Fraud
Click fraud is a type of internet crime that occurs in pay per click online advertising when a person, automated script, or computer program imitates a legitimate user of a web browser clicking on an ad, for the purpose of generating a charge per click without having actual interest in the target of the ad’s link.

Click rate
Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

Clickstream Data
A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while web browsing. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application, the action is logged on a client or inside the web server, as well as possibly the web browser and ad servers. Clickstream data analysis can be used to create a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website, or predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website.

Client
A computer or software program that contacts a server to obtain data via the Internet or another network. Internet explorer, Outlook, and other browsers and e-mail programs are examples of software clients.

Client-initiated ad impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process. See server-initiated ad impression.

Client side
Client side refers to activities taking place on the client as opposed to on the server. Examples are client side counting and client side redirects.

Co-op advertising
Co-op advertising is the creation of advertisements by one party (usually retailers) that include the specific mention of a second party (usually manufacturers) where the second party will pay some or all of the advertising cost.

Codec
Short for compressor/decompressor. Codecs are computer algorithms that are used to compress the size of audio, video, and image files for streaming over a data network or storage on a computer. Apple’s QuickTime, Microsoft’s Windows Media Video, and MP3 are examples of common codecs.

Communication
The activity of conveying information by or to people or groups. Examples of online communication include email, instant messaging, text-messaging, group-messaging.

Communication error
The failure of a Web browser/Web server to successfully request/transfer a document.

Companion Ad
Both Linear and Non-linear Video ad products have the option of pairing their core video ad product with what is commonly referred to as companion ads. Commonly text, display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience, can run alongside either or both the video or ad content. The primary purpose of the Companion Ad product is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video content experience. Companion Ads may offer click-through interactivity and rich media experiences such as expansion of the ad for further engagement opportunities.

Completes
Completes refer to whether the video played to completion.

Content (Site/Page)
Site content is the textual, visual or aural content is encountered as part of the user experience on a website. It may include, among other things: text, images, sounds, animations and videos. Web content is dominated by the “page” concept, with multiple pages of related content typically forming a site.

Content delivery network
A service that hosts online assets and provides content management via servers located around the globe to reduce the latency of downloads to users.

Content distribution network
See content delivery network.

Content integration
Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as “Web advertorial”.

Contextual Ads
Existing contextual ad engines deliver text and image ads to non-search content pages. Ads are matched to keywords extracted from content. Advertisers can leverage existing keyboard-based paid search campaigns and gain access to a larger audience.

Contextual targeting
Targeting content that deals with specific topics, as determined by a contextual scanning technology.

Conversion
conversion occurs when the user performs the specific action that the advertiser has defined as the campaign goal. Conversions are often tracked by a web beacon, called a conversion pixel.

Conversion Rate
The percentage of users who complete a desired action (e.g., purchase or registration) compared to all users who were exposed to an online ad.

Conversion pixel
conversion pixel is a specific type of web beacon that is triggered to indicate that a user has successfully completed a specific action such as a purchase or registration. This user action is considered a conversion.

Cookie
cookie, also known as an HTTP cookieweb cookie, or browser cookie, is a string of text sent from a web server to a user’s browser that the browser is expected to send back to the web server in subsequent interactions.

Cookie Matching
A method of enabling data appending by linking one company’s user identifier to another company’s user identifier.

Cookie buster
Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.

Core ad video
The essential video asset, often repurposed from offline. Can be displayed directly in the player, or in a more customized presentation.

Cost Per Unique Visitor
Total cost of the placement or application, divided by the number of unique visitors.

Creative Retargeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.

Cross-Site Publisher Analytics
Services that provide normative metrics about and estimates of multiple publishers’ inventory.

Cross-site Advertiser Analytics
Software or services that allow an advertiser to optimize and audit the delivery of creative content on pre-bought publisher inventory. Data can range from numbers of pages visited, to content visited, to purchases made by a particular user. Such data is used to surmise future habits of user or best placement for a particular advertiser based on success

Crowdsourcing
Taking a task that would conventionally be performed by a contractor or employee and turning it over to a typically large, undefined group of people via an open call for responses.

Cyber Cafe
A public venue like a bar or cafe which contains computers with access to the Internet.


D

DHTML
(Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language) 
An extended set of HTML commands which are used by Web designers to create much greater animation and interactivity than HTML.

DPO
(Distinct Point of Origin) 
A unique address from which a browser connects to a Web site on the Internet.

DVR
(Digital Video Recorder) 
A high capacity hard drive that is embedded in a set-top box, which records video programming from a television set. DVRs enable the viewer to pause, fast forward, and store TV programming.

Data
In interactive advertising, the computer science definition of data is most often used – that is, information in a form suitable for use with a computer. Most commonly, three types of data are associated with cookies for interactive advertising:

Data Aggregator
data aggregator is an organization that collects and compiles data from various sources, often offering results or access for resale. There are three primary types of data aggregators:

Data Append
User data from one source is linked to a user’s profile from another source.

Data Management Platform
Data Management Platform (DMP) is a system that allows the collection of audience intelligence by advertisers and ad agencies, thereby allowing better ad targeting in subsequent campaigns.

Daughter window
An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner. In normal practice, the content and banner are rendered first and the daughter window appears thereafter.

Deep packet inspection
A form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data and/or header part of a packet as it passes an inspection point. In the context of online advertising, it is used to collect data, typically through an Internet Service Provider, which can be used to display targeted advertising to users based on previous web activity.

Demand side platform
demand side platform (DSP), also called buy side optimizer and buy side platform is a technology platform that provides centralized and aggregated media buying from multiple sources including ad exchanges, ad networks and sell side platforms, often leveraging real time bidding capabilities of these sources.

Demographic Targeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on demographic information such as age, gender and income which may come from, site registration data or an inference-based mechanism.

Demographic information
See data.

Demographics
Common characteristics used for population or audience segmentation, such as age, gender, household income, etc.

Desktop Application
Software that is installed on a computer.

Digital Video Server
A robust, dedicated computer at a central location that receives command requests from the television viewer through a video-on-demand application. Once it receives this request, it then instantly broadcasts specific digital video streams to that viewer.

Digital signatures
Signatures for electronic documents. They establish identity and therefore can be used to establish legal responsibility and the complete authenticity of whatever they are affixed to — in effect, creating a tamper-proof seal.

Digital subscriber line
digital subscriber line (DSL) connection is a high-speed dedicated digital circuit from a given location to the telephone company’s central office, using normal copper telephone lines. DSL is the main form of consumer broadband worldwide. DSL is a general term that includes several variations:

Display Advertising
A form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination web page, generally set off in a box at the top or bottom or to one side of the content of the page.

Domain name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Every domain name consists of one top or highlevel and one or more lower-level designators. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level domains include .com (commercial), .net (network), .edu (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military); .biz (business), .info (informational),.name (personal), .pro (professional), .aero (air transport and civil aviation), .coop (business cooperatives such as credit unions) and .museum. Geographic domains designate countries of origin, such as .us (United States), .fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom), etc.

Drill down
When an online user accesses more and more pages of the Web site, i.e., he or she goes deeper into the content of the site.

Dwell Rate
The percentage of users exposed to a given piece of rich media content or advertising who interact with that content moving their cursors over it (but not clicking).

Dwell Time
The amount of time that a user keeps his or her cursor stationary over a given icon, graphic, ad unit, or other piece of Web content. Often used in the context of expandable ads, where the ad increases in size only when users roll over it with their mice. Usually calculated and reported as an average across all viewers of a piece of content.

Dynamic IP address
An IP address (assigned by an ISP to a client PC) that changes periodically.

Dynamic ad insertion
The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user’s request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.

Dynamic rotation
Delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.


E

E-commerce
The process of selling products or services via the Web.

E-mail Advertising
Banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorships that appear in e-mail newsletters, e-mail marketing campaigns and other commercial e-mail communications. Includes all types of electronic mail (e.g., basic text or HTML-enabled).

E-mail Bounce
An e-mail that cannot be delivered to the mailbox provider and is sent back to the e-mail Service Provider that sent it. A bounce is classified as either “hard” or “soft.” Hard bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a permanent reason, such as a non-existent address. Soft bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a temporary issue, such as a full inbox or an unavailable ISP server.

E-mail Inbox
Within a mailbox provider, the default, primary folder that stores delivered e-mail messages.

E-mail Mailbox Provider
The e-mail program, and by extension the server, that hosts the targeted e-mail address.

E-mail Preview Pane
A small window within a mailbox provider that allows the user to view some e-mail content without opening the e-mail.

E-mail Service Provider (ESP)
A business or organization that provides the e-mail campaign delivery technology. ESPs may also provide services for marketing, advertising and general communication purposes.

E-mail campaign
Advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.

ETV (Enhanced Television)
A type of interactive television technology which allows content producers to send data and graphical “enhancements” through a small part of the regular analog broadcast signal called the Vertical Blanking Interval. These enhancements appear as overlays on the video and allow viewers to click on them if they are watching TV via special set-top box/software services.

Electronic programming guide
An electronic programming guide is an application that allows the viewer to interactively select television programming.

Encoder
A hardware or software application used to compress audio and video signals for the purpose of streaming. See codec.

Encoding
The process of compressing and separating a file into packets so that it can be delivered over a network.

Encryption
Securing digital information so that it is unreadable without the use of digital keys.

Ethernet
A networking technology that links computers together in local area networks.

Event trackers
Primarily used for click-through tracking today, but also for companion banner interactions and video session tracking (e.g. 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).

Expandable banners
Expandable banners are Rich Media Ads that expand in size when a user rolls over or clicks on them. They reveal more advertising information and are designed to grab the attention of the user. The IAB provides guidelines for expandable banners in the Rich Media Ads section of the Display Advertising Creative Format Guidelines Quick Reference Guide.

Explicit Profile Data Targeting
Explicit data is “registration quality data” collected either online or offline. For online registration data, the user has certain attributes in his or her registration profile at a particular site or service, and that data is associated with the user’s Web cookie or some sort of audience database when the user next logs in. Offline registration data includes the sorts of data held in the massive offline direct response industry databases built up over the last several decades. These are then matched to a user online when that user logs in somewhere that is a partner of the data company. The site at which the user logs in, usually an online mail or similar site, sends the name/email combination to the data company, which then makes the match and sends back data. Ethical data providers do not put personally-identifiable data into the cookie or audience database, but rather anonymize the data (e.g., “male” rather than a name or address).

Extranet
An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders via a valid username and password.

Eyeballs
Slang term for audience; the number of people who view a certain website or advertisement.


F

FAQ
Frequently asked questions.

FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) 
Internet protocol which facilitates downloading or uploading digital files.

Failure to transfer
Content requested by a browser can fail to transfer if the page is abandoned by the browser which requested it (see abandonment) or if the server is unable to send the complete page, including the ads (known as an error or a communications error).

Fiber optic cable
Strands of glass used to transmit data—encoded as light—at extremely high data rates. Fiber optics is widely deployed in backbone data networks today and is beginning to be used for “lastmile” broadband connections as well.

Fiber to the home
Data networking infrastructure base on fiber optic cables being deployed by some telcos and other ISPs to provide faster broadband internet connectivity and other services.

Filtering
The process of removing robotic activity and error codes from measurement records to make the remaining records representative of valid human Internet actions.

Filtration guidelines
IAB voluntary guidelines for removing non-human activity in the reported measurement of ad impressions, page impressions, unique visitors and clicks. See the IAB’s Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.

Firewall
A security barrier controlling communication between a personal or corporate computer network and the Internet. A firewall is based on rules which allow and disallow traffic to pass, based on the level of security and filtering a network administrator wishes to employ.

Flame
An inflammatory opinion or criticism distributed by e-mail or posted on a newsgroup or message board.

Flash™
Adobe’s vector-based rich media file format which is used to display interactive animations on a Web page.

Floating ads
An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the Web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.

Fold
The line below which a user has to scroll to see content not immediately visible when a Web page loads in a browser. Ads or content displayed “above the fold” are visible without any end-user interaction. Monitor size and resolution determine where on a Web page the fold lies.

Frame rate
The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be.

Frames
Multiple, independent sections used to create a single Web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one “master” file to control the placement of each section. When a user requests a page with frames, several files will be displayed as panes. Sites using frames report one page request with several panes as multiple page requests. IAB ad campaign measurement guidelines call for the counting of one file per frame set as a page impression.

Frequency
The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.

Frequency capping
The limit of how many times a given ad will be shown to a unique cookie during a session or within a specified time period.

Full screen views
Refers to the number of impressions where the video was played in full screen mode (where available)


G

GIF
(Graphic Interchange Format) 
A standard web graphic format which uses compression to store and display images.

GPRS
(General Packet Radio Service) 
Digital mobile radio technology permitting moderate data rates along with voice communication. Evolution from the GSM standard; referred to as “2.5 G.” See 3G.

GSM
(Global System for Mobile) 
The wireless telephone standard in Europe and most of the rest of the world outside North America; also used by T-Mobile and AT&T, among other US operators.

Geographic Targeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on zip code, area code, city, DMA, state, and/or country derived from user-declared registration information or inference-based mechanism.

Geographic information
A data point used in ad targeting, the location of the user may have been declared by the user (either actively through a form, or passively through GPS), or may have been extrapolated from their IP address or other sources.

Geotargeting
Displaying (or preventing the display of) content based on automated or assumed knowledge of an end user’s position in the real world. Relevant to both PC and mobile data services.

Gigabyte
One gigabyte equals 1000 megabytes.

Graphical user interface
A way of enabling users to interact with the computer using visual icons and a mouse rather than a command-line prompt/interpreter.

Gross exposures
The total number of times an ad is served, including duplicate downloads to the same person.

Gross rating point
Gross rating point (GRP) is a term used in traditional advertising to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. It is the product of the percentage of the target audience reached by an advertisement, times the frequency they see it in a given campaign (frequency × % reached). For example, a television advertisement that is aired 5 times reaching 50% of the target audience each time it is aired would have a GRP of 250 (5 × 50%).

Guerilla Marketing
Campaign tactic involving the placement of often humorous brand-related messages in unexpected places either online or in the real world; intended to provoke word-of-mouth and build buzz.


H

HDTV
(High-Definition Television) 
A higher quality signal resolution using a digital format for the transmission and reception of TV signals. HDTV provides about five times more picture information (picture elements or pixels) than conventional television, creating clarity, wider aspect ratio, and digital quality sound.

HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language) 
A set of codes called markup tags in a plain text file that determine what information is retrieved and how it is rendered by a browser. There are two kinds of markup tags: anchor and format. Anchor tags determine what is retrieved, and format tags determine how it is rendered. Browsers receive HTML pages from the Internet and use the information to display text, graphics, links and other elements as they were intended by a Website’s creator.

HTTP
(Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol) 
The format most commonly used to transfer documents on the World Wide Web.

Head end
The site in a cable system or broadband coaxial network where the programming originates and the distribution network starts. Signals are usually received off the air from satellites, microwave relays, or fiber-optic cables at the head end for distribution.

Heuristic
A way to measure a user’s unique identity. This measure uses deduction or inference based on a rule or algorithm which is valid for that server. For example, the combination of IP address and user agent can be used to identify a user in some cases. If a server receives a new request from the same client within 30 minutes, it is inferred that a new request comes from the same user and the time since the last page request was spent viewing the last page. Also referred to as an inference.

History list
A menu in a web browser which displays recently visited sites. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where a browser was before visiting a particular site.

Hit
The record of a single online transaction event stored in a log file. One page view may contain multiple hits, one for each image on a web page.

Home Visitor
A user that access online content from their residence.

Home page
The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes visitors and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.

Host
Any computer on a network that offers services or connectivity to other computers on the network. A host has an IP address associated with it.

Hot Spot
An ad unit that is sold within the video content experience. Mouse action over the video highlights objects that can be clicked. The click action initiates a Linear video commercial or takes the user to a website.

Hotlists
Pull-down or pop-up menus often displayed on browsers or search engines that contain new or popular sites.

House ads
Ads for a product or service from the same company. “Revenues” from house ads should not be included in reported revenues.

Hybrid pricing
Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. See CPM pricing model and performance-based pricing model.

Hyperlink
A clickable link, e.g., on a Web page or within an e-mail, that sends the user to a new URL when activated.

Hypertext
Any text that contains links connecting it with other text or files on the Internet.


I

IAB
Interactive Advertising Bureau 
Please see Interactive Advertising Bureau.

IMU
(Interactive Marketing Unit) 
The standard ad unit sizes endorsed by IAB. See the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelines for more information.

IP-based geo-targeting
IP-based geo-targeted advertising is delivered to a user’s geographic location as determined by his or her Internet Protocol (IP) address.

IPTV
Generally refers to video programming offered by telecom companies over copper wire. Often misused to refer to PC-based video.

IP address
An IP address is the numerical address assigned to each computer on the internet so that its location and activities can be distinguished from those of other computers.

ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network) 
Faster-than-dial-up connections to the Internet over copper phone wires. DSL has in large part replaced ISDN. See DSL.

ISP
Internet service provider.

ITI
(Information Technology Industry Council) 
Represents the leading U.S. providers of information technology products and services. It advocates growing the economy through innovation and supports free-market policies. See itic.org for more information.

ITV
(Interactive Television) 
Any technology that allows for two-way communication between the audience and the television service provider (such as the broadcaster, cable operator, set-top box manufacturer).

Image map
A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.

Impression
(Also called a View) A single display of online content to a user’s web-enabled device. Many websites sell advertising space by the number of impressions displayed to users. An online advertisement impression is a single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a users screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression. However, the ad server may be programmed to exclude from the count certain non-qualifying activity such as a reload, internal user actions, and other events that the advertiser and ad serving company agreed to not count.

In-Banner Video Ads
Leverage the banner space to deliver a video experience as opposed to another static or rich media format. The format relies on the existence of display ad inventory on the page for its delivery

In-Page Video Ads
Delivered most often as a stand alone video ad and do not generally have other content associated with them. This format is typically home page or channel based and depends on real estate within the page dedicated for the video player.

In-Stream Video Ads
Played before, during or after the streaming video content that the consumer has requested. These ads cannot typically be stopped from being played (particularly with pre-roll). This format is frequently used to monetize the video content that the publisher is delivering. In-Stream ads can be played inside short or long form video and rely on video content for their delivery. There are four different types of video content where in-stream may play, UGC (User Generated Content/Video), Syndicated, Sourced and Journalistic.

In-Text Video Ads
Delivered from highlighted words and phrases within the text of web content. The ads are user activated and delivered only when a user chooses to move their mouse over a relevant word or phrase.

In-unit click
A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect. Also known as click-downs, click-ups and click-withins. See ad clicks; 302 redirect.

Inbox
E-mail Inbox.

Insertion
Actual placement of an ad in a document, as recorded by the ad server.

Insertion order
Purchase order between a seller of interactive advertising and a buyer (usually an advertiser or its agency).

Instant messaging
(IM) 
A method of communicating in real-time, one-to-one or in groups over the internet. Users assemble “buddy lists” which reflect the availability (or “presence”) of people with whom they communicate.

Intelligent agent
Software tools which help the user find information of specific interest to him/her. The user’s profile is continually refined and improved based on the user’s acceptance or rejection of recommendations over time.

Interaction Rate
The proportion of users who interact with an ad or application. Some will be involuntary depending on where the ad or application is placed on screen, so it is highly dependent on placement.

Interactions: A metric specific to Digital Audio
Any of a wide variety of metrics that indicate how many users took an action in response to an ad message, and or the depth of that interaction.

Interactive Advertising Bureau
(IAB) 
IAB is a non-profit trade association devoted exclusively to maximizing the use and effectiveness of interactive advertising and marketing. See iab.net for more information.

Interactive advertising
All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.

Internal page impressions
Web site activity that is generated by individuals with IP addresses known to be affiliated with the Web site owner. Internal activity that is associated with administration and maintenance of the site should be excluded from the traffic or measurement report.

Internet
The worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols known as TCP/IP.

Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat (commonly termed ”IRC”) is a protocol for the real-time exchange of Internet text messages. It is designed for many-to-many communication named discussion forums (called ”channels”), but contains features that allow one-to-one communication, as well as the ability to transfer files. The IRC protocol was formally defined by RFC 1459 in 1993.

Internet marketing
Internet marketing, also known as web marketingonline marketingwebvertising, or e-marketing, is referred to as the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet.

Internet protocol
The internet protocol is the basis for addressing and routing packets across a network of networks. See IP address.

Internet service provider
An internet service provider (ISP) is a business or organization that provides internet access and related services.

Interstitial
Ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as transition ads, intermercial ads and splash pages.

Intranet
A network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organization, usually a corporation, and is accessible only by the organization’s members, employees or others with authorization.

Inventory
See Ad inventory.

Invitation unit
A smallish still or animated graphic often overlays directly onto video content. Typically used as a less-intrusive initial call-to-action. Normally when a viewer clicks or interacts with the invitation graphic, they expand into the ad’s full expression, which might be a simple auto-play video or an interactive experience


J

JPEG
Standard web graphic file format that uses a compression technique to reduce graphic file sizes.

Java
A programming language designed for building applications on the Internet. It allows for advanced features, increased animation detail and real-time updates. Small applications called Java applets can be downloaded from a server and executed by Java-compatible browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.

Journalistic Video
Content that was shot and used by the actual publisher. MSNBC journalist shooting a video and using the video for their own purposes.

Jump page ad
Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the advertiser’s site or the publisher’s site.

Junk E-mail Folder
A folder within an e-mail client or on an E-mail Service Provider server that stores e-mail messages that are identified, either by the user or by an automated spam filter, as undesired or undesirable.


K

KPI
Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals.

Keyword
Specific word(s) entered into a search engine by the user that result(s) in a list of Web sites related to the key word. Keywords can be purchased by advertisers in order to embed ads linking to the advertiser’s site within search results [[SEM|(see “Search engine marketing.”)]]

Keyword Targeting
Targeting content that contains specific keywords.


L

LAN
(Local Area Network) 
A group of computers connected together (a network) at one physical location.

LBS
See Location based service.

Lag
The delay between making an online request or command and receiving a response. See latency.

Large rectangle
An IMU size. The IAB’s voluntary guidelines include seven Interactive Marketing Unit (IMU) ad formats; two vertical units and five large rectangular units. For more information, see the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelines.

Latency
Latency can be seen as:
• The time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection
• The visible delay between request and display of content and ad. Latency sometimes leads to the user leaving the site prior to the opportunity to see. In streaming media, latency can create stream degradation if it causes the packets, which must be received and played in order, to arrive out of order.

Lead Generation
Fees advertisers pay to Internet advertising companies that refer qualified purchase inquiries (e.g., auto dealers which pay a fee in exchange for receiving a qualified purchase inquiry online) or provide consumer information (demographic, contact, and behavioral) where the consumer opts into being contacted by a marketer (email, postal, telephone, fax). These processes are priced on a performance basis (e.g., cost-per-action, -lead or -inquiry), and can include user applications (e.g., for a credit card), surveys, contests (e.g., sweepstakes) or registrations.

Linear Video Ads
Experienced In-Stream, which is presented before, between, or after the video content is consumed by the user. One of the key characteristics of Linear video ads is the ad takes over the full view of the video.

Link
A clickable connection between two Web sites. Formally referred to as a hyperlink.

Listserv
A mailing list comprised of e-mail addresses.

Listserver
A program that automatically sends e-mail to a list of subscribers or listserv.

Location based service
location based service (LBS) is mobile data service related to an end user’s immediate location. Examples include store or service locators and friend finders.

Log file
A file that records transactions that have occurred on the Web server. Some of the types of data which are collected are: date/time stamp, URL served, IP address of requestor, status code of request, user agent string, previous URL of requestor, etc. Use of the extended log file format is preferable.

Login
The identification or name used to access a computer, network or site.


M

M-commerce
Mobile commerce, the ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled cell phone.

MIME
(Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions) 
A method of encoding a file for delivery over the Internet.

MMA
Mobile Marketing Association 
Industry trade organization dedicated to facilitating the growth of advertising on mobile phones.

MMORPG
(Massively Multiplayer Role-Playing Game) 
Any of a variety of three dimensional, highly immersive, PC or console based video games where many players interact, competing or co-operating to achieve goals in real time.

MP3
Codec most commonly used for digital music online. Generic term for any digital music file, regardless of codec used to create or play it.

MPEG
1) the file format that is used to compress and transmit movies or video clips online; 2) standards set by the Motion Picture Exports Group for video media.

MRC
(Media Rating Council) 
A non-profit trade association dedicated to assuring valid, reliable and effective syndicated audience research. The MRC performs audits of Internet measurements as well as traditional media measurements.

MSO
(Multiple System Operator) 
A generic industry acronym for a cable TV system operator; more correctly, any cable network operator with more than one cable TV system.

Mailing list
An automatically distributed e-mail message on a particular topic going to certain individuals.

Main Page
Welcome to the IAB Interactive Advertising Wiki 
Because our industry’s jargon and processes are unique, we’ve dedicated this wiki to be a centralized spot where marketers, agencies and interactive publishers can collaboratively populate a database of information on interactive advertising. Ultimately, this space will serve as a reference to both industry veterans and newcomers alike.

Makegoods
Additional ad impressions which are negotiated in order to make up for the shortfall of ads delivered versus the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Media Company
A company that derives revenue from publishing content via one or more means of distribution, e.g., print publishing, television, radio, the Internet

Metadata
Data that provides information about other data. This includes descriptions of the characteristics of information, such as quality, origin, context, content and structure.

Micro-sites
Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from initial ad. The user stays on the publisher’s Web site, but has access to more information from the advertiser than a display ad allows.

Microblogging
Publishing very brief, spontaneous posts to a public Website, usually via a mobile device or wirelessly connected laptop

Midroll
A linear video spot that appears in the middle of the video content. See preroll and postroll.

Mobile/Location-based Targeting
Mobile/location-based targeting refers to a way to target advertisements on mobile devices such as smartphones or feature phones, GPS receivers, tablets (such as iPads) and soon on many mobile laptops. On phones and tablets, such advertisements can appear in a mobile Web browser or within an app. Geographic targeting information can come in the form of either a confirmed location or a derived location.

Modem
Device which transfers digital signals to analog signals and vice versa suitable for sending across phone or cable lines.

Moore’s Law
A key observation regarding the growth in computer power experienced over the past several decades. Gordon Moore of Intel stated that the speed of semiconductor processors doubles every 18 months. So far this has remained true.

Mouseover
Sometimes referred to as rollover, hover.

Multi-site Company
A single entity that owns and operates multiple web sites, each under a separate domain.


N

NAI
(Network Advertising Initiative) 
A cooperative group of network advertisers which has developed a set of privacy principles in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission. The NAI provides consumers with explanations of Internet advertising practices and how they affect both consumers and the Internet. See networkadvertising.org for more information.

Netiquette
A term that is used to describe the informal rules of conduct (“do’s and don’ts”) of online behavior.

Newsgroup
An electronic bulletin board devoted to talking about a specific topic and open to everybody. Only a handful of newsgroups permit the posting of advertising.

Non-Session data
(also called out-of-session data) – information that cannot be gleaned from the current, single event of a visitor.

Non-linear Video Ads
An Non-linear Video ad product runs parallel to the video content so the user still has the option of viewing the content. Common Non-linear ad products include overlays which are shown directly over the content video itself, and product placements which are ads placed within the video content itself. Non-linear video ads can be delivered as text, graphical banners or buttons, or as video overlays.

Non-registered user
Someone who visits a Web site and elects not to, or is not required to, provide certain information, and hence may be denied access to part(s) of the site.

Nonqualifying page impressions
Page impressions which should be excluded from traffic or measurement reports, such as unsuccessful transfers of requested documents, successful transfers of requested documents to a robot or spider, and/or pages in a frame set. See frames.


O

OTS
(Opportunity to See) 
Same as page display – when a page is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.

Off-site measurement
When a site forwards its log files to an off-site Web research service for analysis.

On-demand
The ability to request video, audio, or information to be sent to the screen immediately by clicking something on the screen referring to that choice.

On-demand video
Video media that is available to a user at the convenience of that user. Youtube, Hulu, and Netflix On Demand are examples of services that offer On-demand video.

On-site measurement
When a server has an appropriate software program to measure and analyze traffic received on its own site.

Online Privacy Alliance (OPA)
A group of corporations and associations who have come together to introduce and promote business-wide actions that create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals’ privacy online. See privacyalliance.org for more information.

Online Publisher
A creator and/or aggregator of online content, which often monetizes user visits by displaying advertisements.

Online Publishers’ Association (OPA)
Trade association representing a segment of online publishers. See the Online-Publishers.org for more information.

Operating system
An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined in simple systems.

Opt-in
Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services. See permission marketing.

Opt-in e-mail
Lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.

Opt-out
When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company’s mailing list.

Overlay
An overlay is a media element that ‘floats’ above other content. This could be text floating over video, or an expanding banner ad expanding over page content.

Overlay ad
A banner ad that appears in the bottom 20% of the video window. Click action initiates a Linear video spot or takes the user to a website. Sold on a CPM and CPC basis.


P

P3P
(Platform for Privacy Preferences Project) 
Browser feature that will analyze privacy policies and allow a user to control their privacy needs.

PDF
See Portable Document Format.

PII
See Personally identifiable information.

PIN
(Personal Identification Number) 
A group of numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured Web site and/or a secure area of a Web site. See password.

PLI
(Privacy Leadership Initiative) 
A partnership of CEOs from 15 corporations and 9 business associations using research to create a climate of trust that will accelerate acceptance of the Internet and the emerging Information Economy, both online and offline, as a safe and secure marketplace. See understandingprivacy.org for more information.

PVR
(Personal Video Recorder) 
See DVR.

Packet sniffer
A program used to monitor and record activity and to detect problems with Web transactions on a network.

Page
A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.

Page Views
When the page is actually seen by the user. Some platforms, like Facebook cache preview images for applications, which can mean that page views are not counted until a user clicks through to an application canvas page.

Page display
When a page is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.

Page impression
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user. See the IAB’s Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.

Page request
The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user’s interaction with a Web site.

Page view
When the page is actually seen by the user. Note: this is not measurable today; the best approximation today is provided by page displays.

Pass Back
an impression offered to a media buyer with the right of first refusal, such that when this right is exercised the impression is offered to another media buyer.

Password
A group of letters and/or numbers which allow a user access to a secured Web site.

Pay-per-Click
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad or e-mail message. See CPC.

Pay-per-Impression
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads. See CPM.

Pay-per-Lead
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. See CPL.

Pay-per-Sale
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. See CPS.

Peer-to-Peer
(P2P) 
The transmission of a file from one individual to another, typically through an intermediary. Individuals sharing files via P2P do not necessarily know one another, rather applications like BitTorrent manage file transmissions from those who have part or all of the file to those who want it.

Performance pricing model
An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.

Permission marketing
When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual. See opt-in.

Persistent cookie
Cookies that remain a client hard drive until they expire (as determined by the website that set them) or are deleted by the end user.

Personalization
Aggregating previous online activity to match non-ad related information to users.

Personalization Service
Software or service that enables websites to match non-ad related information to user.

Personally identifiable information
Personally identifiable information (PII), also known as personally identifying information, is user data that can be used to contact the user, either directly or through a lookup.

Piggyback Pixel
An image tag or code that redirects a user browser to another pixel not directly placed on the publisher page.

Pixel
(also called Beacon or Web Beacon) – An HTML object or code that transmits information to a third-party server, where the user is the first party and the site they are interacting with is the second party. Pixels are used to track online user activity, such as viewing a particular web page or completing a conversion process.

Platform
The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs, e.g., Windows, Macintosh or Unix.

Playlist
Online video content can be broken down by content verticals such as news, music, tv shows, movies, sports, UGC, casual games, automotive, travel, business, b to b, careers, communities, technology, education, directories, government, non-profi t, family, health, real estate, personals, science, adult and gambling. There are hundreds of sub-content verticals under the aforementioned.

Plug-in
A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, plug-in applications are recognized by the browser and their function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.

Pop-under ad
Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.

Pop-up ad
Any advertising experience where visiting a website in an initial browser window initiates a secondary browser window to deliver an ad impression directly above the initial browser window.

Pop-up transitional
Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line-speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.

Portable Document Format
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a digital file format originally developed by Adobe used to represent documents independently of software, operating system, and hardware. The PDF files are designed to contain all information needed to consistently present text, fonts, graphics, and other elements to the user.

Portal
A Web site that often serves as a starting point for a Web user’s session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of Web sites, news, weather, e-mail, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps, and chat or message boards.

Posting
Entry on a message board, blog, or other chronological online forum.

Postroll
A linear video spot that appears after the video content completes. See Preroll and Midroll.

Pre-caching
Storing advertising or content in a computer’s RAM or hard disk memory before it is displayed on the user’s screen, rather than at the time that it plays, to reduce delays in rendering. See cache and caching.

Preroll
preroll video ad is an In-Stream Video Ads that occurs before the video content the user has requested. See also postroll and midroll.

Privacy policy
A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can optout; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data.

Privacy seal program
A program that certifies the Web site owner complies with the site’s proposed policy. Examples include TRUSTe and BBBOnline.

Process audit
Third party validation of internal control processes associated with measurement. See audit.

Profile
Profile is the collection of attributes describing segments, clusters or aggregated data, including prior online activity of a user.

Profile Aggregator
A profile aggregator collects data from various third-party sources to generate behavioral profiles.

Profile Database
Profile Database a server-side store of behavioral profiles.

Profiling
The practice of tracking information about consumers’ interests by monitoring their movements online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.

Protocol
A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

Proxy servers
Intermediaries between end users and Web sites such as ISPs, commercial online services, and corporate networks. Proxy servers hold the most commonly and recently used content from the Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security.

Publisher
An individual or organization that prepares, issues, and disseminates content for public distribution or sale via one or more media.

Publisher Ad Tag
Code that is placed on a publisher’s web page that calls an ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Publisher Pixel
An object embedded in a web page (typically a 1×1 image pixel) that calls a web server for purposes of tracking some kind of user activity.

Purchase
The user activity of completing an e-commerce transaction.

Push advertising
Pro-active, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats.

Push down banners
Push Down Banners are banners that Push website content down while expanding the banner to show more advertising space. They are usually triggered by either Rolling over the banner, Clicking the Banner, or sometimes autoload once the website loads. Users then click a custom designed Close button to minimize the banner.


Q

Quartile reporting
Refers to whether the video played to its 25% and 75% points.

Query
A request for information, usually to a search engine.


R

ROI
(Return on Investment) 
Net profit divided by investment.

RON
(Run-of-Network) 
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.

ROS
(Run-of-Site) 
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.

RSS
RSS or “Really Simple Syndication” is a process for publishing content on the Internet that facilitates moving that content into other environments. For example, top news stories on a newspaper website can be published as an RSS “feed” and pulled into and delivered via a Web portal site. RSS Readers are software programs or websites that enable users to subscribe to one or more RSS feeds, delivering content and information from multiple sources into a single user interface and environment.

RSS Reader
Software or website that aggregates syndicated content (e.g., news headlines, blogs, and podcasts) into a single location for easy viewing.

RSS Readers
RSS Readers are software programs or websites that enable users to subscribe to one or more RSS feeds, delivering content and information from multiple sources into a single user interface and environment.

RTB
The RTB acronym indicates a ”’real-time system for either bidding on or buying”’ ad inventory. The initial RTB ecosystems evolved from the efforts of DSPs to create a more efficient exchange of inventory. Due to these roots, RTB ecosystems put significant emphasis on user information (demographic and behavioral data, for example), while discounting the situation information (the publisher and context).

Rate card
The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.

Re-direct
See Redirect.

Reach
1) unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience; 2) the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Real-time
Events that happen “live” at a particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time.

Redirect
When used in reference to online advertising, one server assigning an ad-serving function to another server, often operated by a third company operating on behalf of an agency.

Referral fees
Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.

Referral link
The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL. Also known as source of a visit.

Referring URL
The address of the webpage that a user previously visited prior to following a link.

Registration
The user activity of subscribing to a website or requesting additional information by filling in personally-identifying contact details.

Repeat visitor
Unique visitor who has accessed a Web site more than once over a specific time period.

Replays
Refers to the number of times a user requested to see the video ad again (where available).

Retargeting
(or re-targeting) – The use of a pixel tag or other code to enable a third-party to recognize particular users outside of the domain from which the activity was collected. See Creative Retargeting, Site Retargeting.

Return visits
The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.

Revenue management
See Yield Management.

Rich Media Vendor
A company that specializes in the creation of rich media ads.

Rich media
Advertisements with which users can interact (as opposed to solely animation) in a web page format. These advertisements can be used either singularly or in combination with various technologies, including but not limited to sound, video, or Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. These Guidelines cover standard Web applications including e-mail, static (e.g. html) and dynamic (e.g. asp) Web pages, and may appear in ad formats such as banners and buttons as well as transitionals and various over-the-page units such as floating ads, page take-overs, and tear-backs.

Roadblock
roadblock ad in digital marketing is a full screen ad that is displayed before any page content. This ad type is similar to a pre-roll in digital video advertising.


S

SEM
Search engine marketing 
A form of Internet Marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the Search Engine result pages.

SEO
Search engine optimization 
SEO is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via “natural” (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results.

SGML
(Standard Generalized Markup Language) 
The parent language for HTML.

SMS
(Short Message Service) 
Standard for sending and receiving short (160 character) text messages via mobile handsets.

SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) 
The protocol used to transfer e-mail.

Sample
A subset of a universe whose properties are studied to gain information about that universe.

Sampling frame
The source from which the sample is drawn.

Screen Scraping
A way of collecting information from a web page, whereby a remote computer program copies information from a website that is designed to display information to a user.

Scripts
Files that initiate routines like generating Web pages dynamically in response to user input.

Search
Fees advertisers pay Internet companies to list and/or link their company site or domain name to a specific search word or phrase (includes paid search revenues). Search categories include:
• Paid listings—text links appear at the top or side of search results for specific keywords. The more a marketer pays, the higher the position it gets. Marketers only pay when a user clicks on the text link.
• Contextual search—text links appear in an article based on the context of the content, instead of a user-submitted keyword. Payment only occurs when the link is clicked.
• Paid inclusion—guarantees that a marketer’s URL is indexed by a search engine. The listing is determined by the engine’s search algorithms.
• Site optimization—modifies a site to make it easier for search engines to automatically index the site and hopefully result in better placement in results.

Search Click
A click originating from a list of links returned by a query to a search engine.

Search Retargeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based one or more searches or search click events.

Search Targeting
Local search targeting helps advertisers target users when they look for places, businesses, housing, entertainment, etc. in specific geographies using a search engine (such as Google or Bing). This allows advertisers to present highly relevant localized offers and advertisements to users.

Search engine
A website that provides a searchable index of online content, whereby users enter keywords describing what they are seeking and the website returns links related to this search query.

Segment
(also called Data Segment or audience) – A set of users who share one or more similar attributes.

Sell-through rate
The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered.

Sell side platform
sell side platform (SSP), also called sell side optimizerinventory aggregator, and yield optimizer is a technology platform that provides outsourced media selling and ad network management services for publishers. A sell side platform business model resembles that of an ad network in that it aggregates ad impression inventory. However, asell side platform serves publishers exclusively, and does not provide services for advertisers.

Semantic Targeting
A type of contextual targeting that also incorporates semantic techniques to understand page meaning and/or sentiment.

Sequence position
The sequence position of an event is whether it was the first, last, or nth in sequence. Determining the ”first” event is not perfectly reliable in attribution efforts, since cookie churn and scope issues may mask the true first event.

Server
A computer which distributes files which are shared across a LAN, WAN or the Internet. Also known as a “host”.

Server-initiated ad impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods server-initiated and client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher’s ad server or the Web content server, or later in the process. See client-initiated ad impression.

Server centric measurement
Audience measurement derived from server logs.

Server pull
A process whereby a user’s browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a Web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference. Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of e-mail newsletters, the request for Web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized Web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre-determined self selections.

Server push
A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.

Server side
Server side refers to activities taking place on the server as opposed to on the client. Examples are server side counting and server side redirects.

Session
1) a sequence of Internet activity made by one user at one site. If a user makes no request from a site during a 30 minute period of time, the next content or ad request would then constitute the beginning of a new visit; 2) a series of transactions performed by a user that can be tracked across successive Web sites. For example, in a single session, a user may start on a publisher’s Web site, click on an advertisement and then go to an advertiser’s Web site and make a purchase. See visit.

Session Starts (SS) : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The number of streams of one minute or more that are started within a time period.

Session cookies
These are temporary and are erased when the browser exits at the end of a web surfing session. See cookie.

Set-top box
A device electronic device that connects to a TV providing connectivity to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.

Shockwave
A browser plug-in developed by Macromedia (now part of Adobe) which allows multimedia objects to appear on the Web (animation, audio and video).

Shopping bot
Intelligent agent which searches for the best price.

Single-Site Publisher Ad Server
Single-site Publisher Ad Servers focus on maximizing the yield to the publisher.

Single-site Publisher Analytics
Software or services that analyze information about users, including metrics such as unique visitors and site usage. The collected data is used only on behalf of the site from which the data is collected.

Site-centric measurement
Audience measurement derived from a Web site’s own server logs.

Site/Page/Position Transparency
Ability for the buyer of media (typically an advertisement) to understand the location and context within which the media will be displayed. Transparency can be at the level of web property (site), page content (page) or position (specific location within page). Site transparency, in the context of a network or an exchange, refers to the ability of a buyer of inventory to know the exact identity of the website domain or page on which they have shown advertisements.

Site Retargeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to previous site visitors when they are on third-party web sites.

Skins
Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.

Skyscraper
A tall, thin online ad unit. The IAB guidelines recommend two sizes of skyscrapers: 120 x 600 and 160 x 600.

Slotting fee
A fee charged to advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.

Smart Card
Identical in size and feel to credit cards, smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card. These chips hold a variety of information, from stored (monetary)-value used for retail and vending machines, to secure information and applications for higher-end operations such as medical/healthcare records. The different types of cards being used today are contact, contactless and combination cards. Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader. Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience. A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card. Specific to interactive television, the viewer can insert smart cards into the set-top box to trigger the box to decrypt contact programming.

Sniffer
Software that detects capabilities of the user’s browser (looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth).

Social Bookmarking
Aggregating, rating, describing, and publishing “bookmarks” – links to Web pages or other online content

Social marketing
Marketing tactic that taps into the growth of social networks, encouraging users to adopt and pass along widgets or other content modules created by a brand, or to add a brand to the user’s social circle of friends.

Social network
An online destination that gives users a chance to connect with one or more groups of friends, facilitating sharing of content, news, and information among them. Examples of social networks include Facebook and LinkedIn.

Sourced Video
Content generated by a third party (typically professional) and will denote the source. An example may be a new car review provided by General Motors but hosted onCarTV.com.

Space
Location on a page of a site in which an ad can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. There can be multiple spaces on a single page.

Spam
Term describing unsolicited commercial e-mail.

Spam filter
Software built into e-mail gateways as well as e-mail client applications designed to identify and remove unsolicited commercial messages from incoming e-mail before the end user sees them.

Splash page
A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Web site that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions.

Sponsor
1) a sponsor is an advertiser who has sponsored an ad and, by doing so, has also helped sponsor or sustain the Web site itself; 2) an advertiser that has a special relationship with the Web site and supports a specific feature of a Web site, such as a writer’s column or a collection of articles on a particular subject.

Sponsored content
Sponsored content can include entries on blogs that promote a specific brand or product.

Sponsorship
Sponsorship represents custom content and/or experiences created for an advertiser which may or may not include ad unties (i.e., display advertising, brand logos, advertorial and pre-roll video).

Sponsorship graphics
Components that are displayed as very persistent graphics such as with a player surrounding skin. Sponsorship graphics are generally displayed throughout the entirety of the content play. Sometimes the sponsorship graphic remains interactive and will behave like an invitation unit allowing viewers to explore deeper ad units such as the embedded interactive.

Spyware
Computer software that is installed surreptitiously to intercept or take partial control over the user’s interaction with a computer, without the user’s informed consent. Spyware programs can collect various types of information, such as Internet surfing habits, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, and redirecting web browser activity. The software usually does not contain generally accepted standards of notice describing what the purpose and/or behavior of the software is nor does is usually contain visible or functioning choice mechanisms for complete uninstall. The programs are typically characterized by behaviors that can be considered deceptive if not harmful to the user and/or his computer.

Static ad placement/Static rotation
1) ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; 2) embedded ads.

Stickiness
A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.

Streaming
1) technology that permits continuous audio and video delivered to a computer from a remote Web site; 2) an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files. The host or source compresses, then “streams” small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.

Streaming media player
In the interactive advertising context, a streaming media player is a software program that can retrieve audio and video files over a network and begin playback before the entire media file has been downloaded. Some examples are Real Player™, Windows Media and Quick Time Player.

Superstitials
An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre-cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.

Surfing
Exploring the World Wide Web.

Syndicated Video
Content sourced from a professional third party, examples may include syndicated television shows, news footage from AP or Reuters, etc, and distributed through a multitude of outlets observing strict ownership rights.


T

T-1
A dedicated, typically corporate, high-speed (1.54 megabits/second) Internet connection.

T-3
A very high-speed (45 megabits/second or higher) dedicated, corporate Internet connection.

T-commerce
Electronic commerce via interactive television.

TCP/IP
(Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) 
The software protocols that run the Internet, determining how packets of data travel from origin to destination.

Target audience
The intended audience for an ad, usually defined in terms of specific demographics (age, sex, income, etc.) product purchase behavior, product usage or media usage.

Targeted Advertisement
an advertisement that is shown only to users exhibiting specific attributes or in a specific context or at a particular time of day.

Terms & Conditions
The details of the contract accompanying an insertion order. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines of standard terms & conditions for Internet advertising for media buys.

Text Messaging
Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of “short” (160 characters or fewer) text messages, using the Short Message Service, from mobile phones. See SMS.

Textual ad impressions
The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable “auto load images” in their graphical browser. When they reach a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the advertiser’s message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.

Third-party ad server
Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.

Throughput
The amount of data transmitted through Internet connectors in response to a given request.

Time-Based Targeting
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors only on certain days of the week or times of the day (also known as Day Parting).

Time Spent

Time Spent Listening (ATSL) : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The average number of hours for each session lasting more than one minute within a time period.

Token
Tracer or tag which is attached by the receiving server to the address (URL) of a page requested by a user. A token lasts only through a continuous series of requests by a user, regardless of the length of the interval between requests. Tokens can be used to count unique users.

Tracking Assets: A metric specific to Mobile Advertising
A tracking asset is any piece of content associated with an ad or the page on which an ad appears that is designated to serve as the “trigger” by which the ad is counted. The content that serves as a tracking asset often may be, but is not limited to, a 1×1 pixel image, a 302-redirect, a Javascript code, or the ad itself.

Traffic
(Noun): The flow of data over a network, or visitors to a Web site

Transfer
The successful response to a page request; also when a browser receives a complete page of content from a Web server.

Transitional ad
An ad that is displayed between Web pages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial.

Transitional pop up
An ad that pops up in a separate ad window between content pages.

Triggers
A command from the host server that notifies the viewer’s set-top box that interactive content is available at this point. The viewer is notified about the available interactive content via an icon or clickable text. Once clicked by using the remote control, the trigger disappears and more content or a new interface appears on the TV screen.


U

URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) 
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).

URL tagging
The process of embedding unique identifiers into URLs contained in HTML content. These identifiers are recognized by Web servers on subsequent browser requests. Identifying visitors through information in the URLs should also allow for an acceptable calculation of visits, if caching is avoided.

Unduplicated audience
The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad in a specified time period.

Unique Browser
An identified and unduplicated Cookied Browser that accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. This definition requires taking account for the potentially inflationary impact of cookie deletion among certain of the cookied browsers that access Internet content.

Unique Cookie
A count of unique identifiers…that represents unduplicated instances of Internet activity (generally visits) to Internet content or advertising during a measurement period.

Unique Device
An unduplicated computing device that is used to access Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. A count of unduplicated devices necessarily accounts for multiple browser usage on an individual computer or other computing device.

Unique Users
See Unique Visitors

Unique Visitors
Unique individual or browser which has accessed a site or application and has been served unique content and/or ads such as e-mail, newsletters, interstitials or pop-under ads. Unique visitors can be identified by user registration, cookies, or third-party measurement like ComScore or Nielsen. Reported unique visitors should filter out bots.See iab.net for the audience reach measurement guidelines.

Unique listeners/streamers : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The size of the audience for a given audio program, piece of content, or advertising message. Typically ‘listeners’ and ‘streamers’ are interchangeable.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a 3rd generation (3G) wireless transmission protocol that enables text, data, and speech services to mobile computer and phone users.

Universe
Total population of audience being measured.

Unresolved IP addresses
IP addresses that do not identify their 1st or 2nd level domain. Unresolved IP addresses should be aggregated and reported as such. See also domain.

Upload
To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending e-mail.

Usenet
Internet bulletin-board application.

User
An individual with access to the World Wide Web.

User-Generated Video
Content created by the public at large, generally not professionally edited, and directly uploaded to a site like YouTube or MySpace.

User Ad Requests: A metric specific to Mobile Advertising
A user ad request is the result of an active or passive act on the part of the user of a mobile marketing channel. The user may explicitly call for the ad to be delivered, or a request to the ad delivery system is triggered based on other user’s actions.

User agent string
A field in a server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request.

User centric measurement
Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample of Web users.

User registration
Information contributed by an individual which usually includes characteristics such as the person’s age, gender, zip code and often much more. A site’s registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor’s behavior within that site.


V

VAST
The Digital Video Ad Serving Template (VAST) 
The digital video ad serving template (VAST) provides a standardized method for communicating the status of a video ad back to the ad servers in the case where the ad is served from a dynamically selected ad server. It is specifically designed for on-demand video player where the ad response is parsed prior to play.

VRML
(Virtual Reality Modeling Language) 
Programming language designed to be a 3D analog to HTML.

Video Game Console
An interactive entertainment computer or electric device that manipulates the video display signal of a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a game. The term video game console is typically used solely for playing video games, but the new generation of consoles may play various types of media such as music, TV shows, and movies.

Video Installs
Number of Video players that have been placed by a user onto their page. Also called embed, grab or post. A video player is a type of Widget.

Video ad
video ad is an advertisement that contains video. There are several different types of video ads:

Video on demand
Video on Demand, usually refers to services offered by cable companies through set-top boxes.

Video player
video player is a computer program that translates data into video for viewing.

Viewer
Person viewing content or ads on the Web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.

Viral marketing
1) any advertising that propagates itself; 2) advertising and/or marketing techniques that “spread” like a virus by getting passed on from consumer to consumer and market to market.

Viral video
Online video clips (typically short and humorous) passed via links from one person to another.

Virtual world
Three-dimensional computerized environments that multiple users can explore and interact with via “avatars,” characters representing themselves. Online games like World of Warcraft take place in virtual worlds, but the term is often used to define services that are open-ended and geared for socializing, as opposed to the more goal-oriented environments of online games.

Visit
A single continous set of activity attributable to a cookied browser or user (if registration-based or a panel participant) resulting in one or more pulled texts and/or graphics downloads from a site.

Visit duration
The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, Web page or Web site during a single session.

Visitor
Individual or browser which accesses a Web site within a specific time period.


W

WAN
(Wide Area Network) 
Connectivity between a number of computers not located at the same physical location.

WAP
(Wireless Application Protocol) 
A specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular mobile telephones, PDAs and others access and browse Internet-based content.

WASP
(Wireless Applications Service Provider) 
An organization that provides content and applications for wireless devices.

WIMAX
A wireless WAN standard (IEEE 802.16) designed to provide portable (eventually mobile) wireless broadband access. Single WIMAX antennas can provide coverage over large physical areas, making deployment potentially very cost effective. Although not widely available as of 2007, sometimes considered a potential competitor to cable modems and DSL for residential broadband.

Web beacon
web beacon, also known as a web bug1 by 1 GIFinvisible GIF, and tracking pixel, is a tiny image referenced by a line of HTML or a block of JavaScript code embedded into a web site or third party ad server to track activity.

Web crawler
web crawler (also known as an ”automatic indexer”, ”bot”, ”Web spider”, ”Web robot”) is a software program which visits Web pages in a methodical, automated manner.

Web site
The virtual location (domain) for an organization’s or individual’s presence on the World Wide Web.

Webcasting
Real-time or pre-recorded delivery of a live event’s audio, video, or animation over the Internet.

Website
website, also written as Web siteweb site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content (media), including text, video, music, audio, images, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via the Internet through an address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.

Wi-Fi
Any of a family of wireless LAN data standards (IEEE 802.11) used fairly ubiquitously for corporate and home connectivity. Also available as “hotspots” in public areas such as cafes and airport terminals, either for free or for a one-time use charge or subscription fee.

Widget
A small application designed to reside on a PC desktop (Mac OS X or Windows Vista) or within a Web-based portal or social network site (e.g., MySpace or Facebook) offering useful or entertaining functionality to the end user.

Widget and Social Media Application Metrics
The following metrics apply specifically to widgets and social media applications. These supplementary metrics offer advertisers a greater insight into ROI for all widget and social media application campaigns.


X

XML
(eXtensible Markup Language) A richer more dynamic successor to HTML utilizing SGML or HTML type tags to structure information. XML is used for transferring data and creating applications on the Web. See SGML and HTML.


Y

Yield
The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page. Also called ad click rate.

Yield Management
Yield Management 
Yield and Revenue Management is the process of understanding, anticipating and influencing advertiser and consumer behavior in order to maximize profits through better selling, pricing, packaging and inventory management, while delivering value to advertisers and site users.

eCommerce Website Design

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Ecommerce, Ecommerce Website Design, website design

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eCommerce Website Design

The below are the reasons I build eCommerce websites using the Volusion eCommerce software.

As 2012 comes to a close and we welcome the new year, the marketing data start to flow in. I am happy to report that Volusion shopping carts had a record breaking year. The reports show that online business continued to grow, and Volusion merchants led the way. Volusion store owners sold over 3 times the industry average in 2012, making more than $2.8 billion in online sales for the year. This is huge but to be honest expected.

With new features such as Google Trusted Stores, Schema.org, Pinterest integration and eBay integration online stores saw about 10% in sales. Not to mention that Volusion has one to the easiest shopping carts to optimize allow my customers to show up under more searches and increase their internet foot print.

In 2013 I am happy to say that the software I use will continue to generate even more revenue for my clients as new feature, integration and tools continue to be introduced.

Here are just a few of the developments that will be coming soon:

  • Amazon integration: Sell your products in the largest eCommerce marketplace on earth.
  • Enhanced mobile functionality: Allow your customers to shop and buy from your store more efficiently – anywhere, any time.
  • Deeper integration with PayPal: We’ll be expanding our current integration with PayPal to help you accept payments more easily.
  • Volusion Anywhere: Embed products from your online store anywhere. Sell your products across websites, blogs and social media sites. – This will be huge!

 

If your retail store needs to go online to keep up with the ever changing habits of your customers or your just need a fresh and more functional online store please contact me today.

What Do I Do Anyway?

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Media By Matt

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Media By Matt

 

Okay, so I was talking with my wife the other day and she asked what it is I do. Now, to someone in my field what I do makes sense and is very obvious. That being said I’m not trying to work with people in my field. So the following is an explanation of “what it is I do” at Media By Matt.

I build websites!

Okay, so when my client’s website just isn’t cutting it I build them a one. Typically I use WordPress which is a platform for building websites with a content management system or CMS. This system allows your company to have just about any functionality you can think of along with the ability to make changes on your own without having to pay anyone (Me). Pretty awesome right? I mean who wants to pay to change a phone number on their own website?

I also build E-Commerce websites. E-Commerce websites are websites that allow you to sell your products online. Just like Target, Best Buy and other such stores. Why do I do this? Because if you sell a product and people are looking you up online it would make sense to sell to them online. There is a low over head and online purchases keep going up year after year.  Remember that your website should be just as good as someone coming into your store front.

I Do Search Engine Optimization!

Search Engine Optimization: Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine’s “natural” or un-paid (“organic”) search results. (provided by Wiki)

So basically that means that I am working to complete tasks both on your company’s website as well as on different websites such as google, bing, ezine articles, multiple directories and much more to help move your website up in search engine results. This helps to generate more traffic as well as a higher return on investment.

I Do Video Optimization!

This is similar to search engine optimization only it has to do with videos that you place on the websites like You Tube.

I Do Media Planning!

Similar to an agency, I will plan out your marketing/advertising efforts for a specific event, week, month or year. Why would choose to have someone like me do this for you? I will use market information such as demographics and media reach as well as different media services (print, TV, radio, online, etc) to create the best campaign possible. Unlike a media sales rep I don’t “play favorites” so you will get an honest assessment of the market as well as a non-bias marketing plan.

I Do Media Buying!

Raise your hand if you like talking with all of the different media companies out there instead of running your business….. No one. Ok, so I will work with your media sales reps one on one and handle all of the marketing/advertising purchases for you. You of course have to approve all of the purchases. All of this leaves a lot more time for you to run your business.

I Do Consulting!

This one is pretty straight forward. I will provide marketing/advertising consulting. This is basically where I tell you what direction to move your marketing/advertising as well as and what products are worth purchasing and which ones are not. I will also perform a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) analysis on your businesses marketing efforts.

What sets me apart from other agencies?

Well, I’m not just an agency. More often than not an agency will research, purchase advertising and  handle creative for you, but that’s it.  While I do those things, I also provide real marketing/advertising services such as consulting, website design, and optimization. Furthermore, I have and still do sell advertising. This means that I truly know the ups and downs to every media and know how to work with them.

So in a nut shell I provide small and medium size businesses with effective and unique marketing solutions to help them achieve their marketing goals.

 

Media By Matt

SEO Is More Important Than Ever

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Search Engine Optimization

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yodaNow more than ever SEO is an important part of any marketing plan. Every day I read an article that has a very negative view of SEO. Normally, these articles are being written to push a service such as social media or pay per click. Now I have always taken a stance of not bashing a medium or marketing service because they all have their place and they all of their value. That being said, it is foolish to think that you don’t receive any business from SEO. Something that a lot of article would have you believe. After all, the number one action taken from almost any form of marketing is a Google search. Weather your marketing message comes in the form of cold calls or display ads, TV ads or radio ads, it is important to remember that eventually these marketing methods will yield a Google search. So how do people know what to search for.

People searching by company name.

This is a very small percentage of searches unless you are a best buy, target restaurant.  Usually a when someone searches by name it is because they have your company card or because they just got off the phone with you. This is because your company’s name is fresh in their memory. However, if they don’t do the search right away the cultural ADD affect kicks in and they forget you and your company’s name. There is still a good chance they will come back and perform a Google search however, this time they won’t be using your name.

Client question: If they Google my name wont they find me?

Answer: The short answer is yes.

Long answer: Yes you will (99% of the time). However, if I Google your name how many other companies show up? How many companies show up on the Map along with you? Does your Google profile say all of the right things for make me call you vs your competitor who is showing up right next to you?

As you can see there are many variables that come into play just when searching a company’s name.

People searching by what they want

This is the most common type of search, especially on a national level. People tend to type in what it is they are looking for and see who shows up. This is in large part due to the diminishing brand loyalty that seems to have taken off in the US.

Client questions: how long will it take for me to be on the first page for the services I offer and how do I get there?

Answer: typically, it can take 6 months to a year on a local level. However, on a national level it could take much longer. It really depends on the amount of competition that is out there along with several other variables. That being said SEO is about long term goals, staying the course and adjusting your tactics.

Please keep in mind that SEO is in no way shape or form dead. Optimization and the tactics that are used have simply evolved. To learn more contact us today

What Mom Bloggers Understand Better Than Businesses

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Mom Bloggers

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What Mom Bloggers Understand Better Than Businesses

Mom bloggingThere are a couple of things that Mom bloggers understand better and businesses. Yes I said it. A Mom who blogs knows more than someone who owns a business. In fact I would venture to say they know more than most of the business owners I work with.

1.) Brand Equity

Moms understand more about brand equity than most of the business owners I see and deal with on a daily basis. They understand that they stand for a specific topic  or belief no matter how sane or insane it may be and they make damn sure that everyone knows it. When I ask some businesses owners what they or their company stands for they simply don’t know or give me a lame answer like great customer service.

*Tip: Every business wants to have great customer service and that is not what you or your business stands for. Define yourself and your business. It will help provide direction.

2.) Social Media

Mom Bloggers have a greater understanding of social media and how to use it than people who have a PHD in Marketing. They fully understand the value it brings to the table and that simply posting is not enough. You must also interact. Although, sometimes I wish they wouldn’t because it they can get freakin brutal. They also understand the implication of every update that companies like Facebook make and how it affects them.

In fact my own wife has given me more detailed updates on Facebook and other social media companies than the forums and blogs I subscribe to. Oh and its usually a couple of weeks in faster too.

3.) How to build traffic

Yep I went there. Mom Bloggers have a greater understanding of how to build website traffic because they do so without the use of SEO, PPC or marketing. Most Mom bloggers have built their traffic using only social media and networking.

4.) Reputation management

This is probably truer than first three. Mom Bloggers understand that they have a reputation and will defend that reputation. Sometimes to their own detriment like Gina from the leaky boob, but none the less they fully understand the value and most business owners don’t.

If you are a small or even a large business you should really pay attention to mom bloggers as they have a very good understanding of the thing that matter to businesses.

Ashton Kutcher Speech – Teen Choice Awards

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Ashton Kutcher, Media By Matt

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Ashton Kutcher tells it like it is.

I really loved this speech for a couple of reasons.

1.) It comes from an unexpected place.

2.) It is just as relevant to myself as it is to my 6 year old. In fact I found myself inspired when I watched this.

3.) Chris Ashton Kutcher say in 4 min what CEO’s and Motivational speakers say in an hour. Oh and by the way, he does a better job.

 

Top 5 Small Business Website Design Mistakes

Written by media1964 on . Posted in website design

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Top 5 Small Business Website Design Mistakes

Many small businesses out there look to save money wherever possible. To be honest I get it and do the same thing. however, there are several areas where businesses should most definitely not cut corners or costs. One of those areas is a website.

Now, I almost always ask my clients (even if I know the answer) who built their website. The two answer I hate hearing more than anything is a family member or a friend of theirs. This is because they usually get something that looks good but has terrible on page SEO (search engine optimization), looks terrible and has terrible on page seo or my favorite all of the above.

Here are the top 5 small business website design mistakes and how to fix them

1.) Do not use a friend or relative unless they actually own or work for a website design company. Your are simply asking for trouble. Instead, find a website design company. I know it will be more expensive, but keep in mind that there are a lot of affordable small business website design companies out there.

2.) Do not use a website design program like 1and1.com, Godaddy (sorry Godaddy), yahoo, Wix and many more… To many to mention. This is because you most likely aren’t going to get anything more than a lemon.  Think of free website design program like Pintos. Yes, it will get you there but you might regret it in the feature. Once again, use an actual small business website design company.  However, if you are determined to use a program and build a website on your own then use something like WordPress. It is beyond easy to use and has tool to help optimize your website.

3.) For the love of what ever you believe in, please stop using a website as a way to tell anyone everything you possibly can. It is a major turn off to users and will send your bounce rate through the roof. Instead, tell or show them what you are going to do for them or what it is they want to purchase and let the user do what they do best. For examples go to places like Target.com, and sunglasshut.com. these are simple to navigate, easy to read and they entice me to keep shopping.

4.) Small business website design is something that should be looked at as a way to increase revenue. its not just there to be left alone. make a plan for your website. What are you going to have on it? Are you going to sell products? Are you going to have people sign up for a newsletter? Most importantly, who is going to maintain the site?

5.) This one is probably the most important one of them all. Please do your research. don’t just rely on someone to tell you what you need or like. look at websites, I mean a lot of websites. write down the URL’s and what it is you like about the websites and what it is you don’t like. This will make a huge difference in the end result of your website.

Remember that small business website design is not easy. there is a lot that goes into it and it requires planning. Rely on your own research and actual experts to help you.

For more information please contact me today!

Top 5 Small Business Website Design Mistakes

 

Building Brand Equity

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Brand Equity, Branding, Reputation Management

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Building Brand Equity

brand equityBuilding Brand Equity is something that many businesses struggle with. After all it’s not easy to let everyone know who you are and what you can do for them.  Or is it because brand equity has so much more to do with your business than how many people know what it you provide?

brand equity is one of the those concepts that can make or break your business. So how to you grow, maintain or even establish your companies brand equity?

Illustrated in the image above, there are four simple concepts to follow.

First and foremast is Brand Awareness.

Dictionary.com defines brand awareness as: the extent to which consumers are aware of a particular product or service.

So how do you build brand awareness. The first step is marketing. In order for people know what services or products you have and what you can do for them you must first tell them.  The best answer to this a diversified media buy that spans three advertising mediums. Depending on where you are the three best mediums are online, newspaper and television.

Second and equally important to the first is associations and attributions. This part of brand equity refers to the public perception that your business has. What are people saying about your business? What are people saying about the competition? These are important questions to know the answer to because the answer will determine the message of your advertising as well as it might push you to make changes to your business operations and customer service tactics.

Third, what is the perceived quality of your products or service. Keep in mind that even is the answer if low that’s okay. Walmart is perceived as having cheap products but people still flock to buy their products. What this will help with is finding your target market. Or, maybe you thought you had a high quality product and the perception is the opposite. This may cause you to rethink the product, brand or service you are providing and make changes.

Finally, we come to brand loyalty. How loyal are your customers? Keep in mind that these brand loyalty is fading fast. However, if you know where your customers loyalty stand then you can effectively work at keeping your customers coming back.

Brand equity is one of the most important aspects of any business and it all starts with marketing.

For help with your companies brand equity please contact us today.

 

Local SEO Explained…Kind of

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Local SEO, Search Engine Optimization

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Local SEO

Local SEOSo I have been racking my brain when it comes to explaining local SEO and how to choose which keywords to optimize for to my customers. See I’m one of those people thinks on a more technical scale, so I have a hard time scaling down what I say to a customer’s level.  Kind of like when a mechanic tries to tell you what is wrong with your car and you have no idea what he is actually saying. So here is my last and final attempt.

Most of my customers have heard that SEO is all about the links coming into your website.  This could not be further from the truth. Especially since Google implemented their new Panda update. Now before some of you get all upset that I just said that, hear me out.  In my mind and what has brought me success in Local SEO are a lot of little tasks which include some but not all of the following.

Google Places profile

Meta title changes

Content optimization

Article Submissions

Directory submissions

Meta description and keyword changes (Yes I know what Google and every other person in the world says about them)

This list of course is not spelled out in any detail and we can all agree that Keywords are pretty much worthless in the long run.  However, as I said before Local SEO is about all of the little things.  It is very important to look at everything not just links.  This is because although some things are not all that important any more, when you combine a lot of unimportant tasks with the moderately important and very important tasks you will get a strong Local SEO campaign. Remember it all counts.

Now, how do you find out what a good local keyword would be to optimize for??? Well, there are a couple of routes you can take.  The first and what I find to be the most popular is when the client optimizes for a keyword because it is what they would type in.  This is only accurate about 1/3 of the time. Also, remember that if I were to ask 20 people how they would find a used car dealer in Tucson AZ I would probably get about 15 different answers. The second and probably the easiest, is to use the Google Keyword tool and look at search volumes for a number of keywords.  This is actually really effective for Regional and national SEO campaigns, but not always for Local. The reason is due to search volume.  Even though a local keyword search you’re looking for is popular, it may only popular on a local level and does not generate enough searches for Google to pay attention to it and show its search volume.  The final and probably the most effective way of researching local keywords, is to use a Pay Per Click campaign to determine search volumes and return.

In conclusion I hope that you can see where Local SEO is a lot more than just building links or changing content.  It is a lot of different tasks that must be completed in order to achieve the long lasting results you desire.

What is Brand Equity

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Brand Equity, Branding, Reputation Management

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What Is Brand Equity

Brand equityWhat is Brand Equity and how do i know what kind of brand equity my business has?  This is a very common question and problem for businesses. It’s a problem for businesses because the employees, the person in charge of the marketing or even the business owner don’t truly understand brand equity. In many cases all of the above don’t understand it.

From Dictionary.com

Brand equity 

Definition:  all of the distinguishing qualities of a commercial brand that results in personal commitment to and demand for the brand; the intangible value-added aspect of particular goods otherwise not considered unique; also, the value built up in a brand,either positive or negative
Example:  Brand equity is created through aggressive mass marketing campaigns.

To understand where your current brand equity stands, ask yourself several simple questions.

What do I want people to say about my business when they talk with others?

How many people really know what my business is about?

What are people saying about my business?

Finally, what are people saying about my competition?

It is important to know the answer to these questions because they are directly tied to your Brand Equity. Oh, and please do not make the mistake of thinking that your customer service is what sets you apart from your competitors because unless you have a large number of positive online review and you are working to correct the negative online reviews and your competitor has a large number of negative reviews then that answer would be incorrect.

So how do you go about answering these questions?

Questions 1: What do you want people to say about your business when they talk with others?

This is pretty simple to answer. Think about the service or product you provide. Then think about what a customer could say to another individual about your business (not customer service) to make them come in and purchase your product or service.

Question 2: How many people really know what my business is about?

Look at the number of unique customers that come into your business each month. That is the number of people who actually know about the product or service you are providing and the environment your are providing it in.

Question 3: What are people saying about my business?

Look up your own business on Google, yelp and other review sites to truly understand what people are saying about your business. For better or worse you may be surprised.

Question 4: what are people saying about my competition?

Look your competitors up on Google, yelp and other review sites to truly understand what people are saying about your competition. This can also help you in your marketing.

The bottom line is this. Brand equity is the foundation of any successful business can make and or break your business. Therefore, it would be a good thing to start building and maintaining it so that you can continue to grow and be profitable for many years to come.

 

Get Help With Your Brand Equity Today!

Why Advertising Fails

Written by media1964 on . Posted in Advertising, Traditional Marketing

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 Why Advertising Fails

 

Advertising FailsThe reason advertising fails has many different answers. However, it can usually be attributed to one of four major causes.

The first and most common reason advertising fails is because companies do not do enough of it. Example: A retail store is having an event for celebrate their 25 year in business. The owner does not do much advertising and has a small store in a town with a population of 1 million people.

The store decides to run three 1/8 page black and white ads over three weeks at a cost of $813.00 per ad. This may seem expensive to you, however, due to the lack to frequency in a single week the ad campaign will most likely fail. If the advertising increased his budget to 3 ads per week he/she would not only increase the store brand equity but would also have a much more successful campaign generating new business and new customers. (Best frequency for display advertising is three ads per week).

Reason number two is actually worse than reason number one. Emotion! One of the biggest mistakes an advertiser can make is to place their own personal feelings about a medium on a buying decision. I live in Tucson AZ which is a big newspaper town. However, on a monthly basis I here I don’t want to advertise in the paper because I don’t subscribe to it. The Advertiser is completely ignoring the fact that the newspaper reaches 64% of the Tucson market which is unusually high. Instead they buy TV (because they watch TV) which when you combine the reach of all three TV stations in town you will find that their combine reach is not equal to the newspapers reach. Sad I know.

The third reason an advertising campaign fails is because of creative. Look at your local newspaper. The ads that are clutter or have a bad layout almost always fail. The ads that are clean, to the point and in color are the ones you will read as well as the ones you will remember. Now think of TV commercials that you always remember or even like, such as progressive’s Flo or the Gieco cavemen. You remember these and even like them because they are short, simple and memorable. These are pretty simple concepts that are quite often ignored.

The fourth and final reason is pretty simple. Advertisers simply do not set bench marks before they start advertising and thus they have no idea whether or not their advertising is working. Before you start you need to know how many monthly average transactions, average monthly gross revenue, phone calls, emails, page views and unique visitors you get. Otherwise how do you know if your advertising is working?

Now don’t get me wrong. There are plenty of campaigns out there the fail because of timing or maybe the advertiser has simply purchased the wrong product. The bottom line is that you need to take your time and do your research before you advertise and you will see a much higher return on investment.

For more information or help in creating an effective online campaign, please contact me today.

 

Why Advertising Fails

 

  1. Contact us today!
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