IAB Wiki – Glossary of Interactive Advertising Terms
Because our industry’s jargon and processes are unique, we’ve dedicated the IAB Wiki to be a centralized spot where marketers, agencies and interactive publishers can collaboratively populate a database of information on interactive advertising. Ultimately, this space will serve as a reference to both industry veterans and newcomers alike. We encourage you to participate in this community project. Please feel free to submit new entries as well as update existing ones at www.iab.net.
The process of a server sending a browser the location of a requested ad, rather than sending the ad itself. Ad servers use 302 redirects to allow them to track activities such as ad requests or ad clicks.
3G is the “Third Generation” mobile network infrastructure. As of 2007, 3G technologies were deployed by mobile operators in most of Europe, East Asia, and North America. Supports much higher data speeds than previous mobile networks, in some cases approaching wired broadband connections.
AAAA (American Association of Advertising Agencies)
Founded in 1917, the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) is the national trade association representing the advertising agency business in the United States. See the AAAA’s official Website.
See average active sessions.
ANA (Association of National Advertisers)
The Association of National Advertisers leads the marketing community by providing its members insights, collaboration and advocacy. The ANA strives to promote and protect all advertisers and marketers. See ANA.net for more information.
ARF (Advertising Research Foundation)
The ARF is the premiere advertising industry association for creating, aggregating, synthesizing and sharing the knowledge required by decision makers in the field. The principal mission of The ARF is to improve the practice of advertising, marketing and media research in pursuit of more effective marketing and advertising communications.
Abandonment is when a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction.
When a Web server does not successfully transfer a unit of content or ad to a browser. This is usually caused by a user hitting the stop button or clicking on another link prior to the completion of a download.
Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit..
The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.
Ad banners (also known as banner ads) are one of the most dominant forms of advertising on the internet. Banner ads are a form of display advertising that can range from a static graphic to full motion video.
Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.
Ad campaign audit
An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.
The user activity of pressing a navigation button or hitting the enter key on the keyboard on an advertisement unit on a Web site (banner, button or text link). (See Click-through)
Ad creative pixel
A pixel request embedded in an ad tag which calls a web server for the purpose of tracking that a user has viewed a particular ad. See web beacon.
Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user – server-initiated and client-initiated, which are explained in the diagrams below.
When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.
An ad exchange is a sales channel between publishers and ad networks that can also provide aggregated inventory to advertisers. They provide a technology platform that facilitates automated auction based pricing and buying in real-time. Ad exchanges’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad networks.
A collection of one or more ad creatives. Also called an ad campaign.
Ad impressions are the count of ads which are served to a user. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads.
Ad impression ratio
Click-throughs divided by ad impressions. See click rate.
When an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.
The aggregate number of opportunities near publisher content to display advertisement to visitors.
The creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.
Ad networks provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide specific technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization. Ad networks’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad exchanges.
A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents is exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time is asked if they remember the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.
The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.
An ad server is a web server dedicated to the delivery of advertisement. This specialization enables the tracking and management of advertising related metrics.
The delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.
The location on a page of a site in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.
The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).
Software code that an advertiser provides to a publisher or ad network that calls the advertisers ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.
Delivering an ad to the appropriate audience. This may be done through:
The successful display of an advertiser’s Web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or “transfers” the user’s browser to an advertiser’s Web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser’s Web site, an ad transfer is recorded.
An ad or set of ads displayed as a result of a piece of ad code executing.
When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.
Add to cart
The user activity of storing merchandise in a virtual shopping cart that the user intends to later purchase from an online e-commerce website. This enables users to continue browsing and “check-out” later or alternately delete these items from the cart.
A unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a Web site or marked with an @ for an e-mail address. Literally, it is how one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet.
A commercial message targeted to an advertiser’s customer or prospect.
The company paying for the advertisement.
See Banner. (also called Ad Banner or Banner) – A static graphical image (GIF or JPEG files) or interactive content (Flash files) used to display an advertising unit on a web site. Most banners enable users to click on ad to be redirected to another website.
Computer software provided to the user free of charge or at a discounted price that downloads and displays advertising to support its continued development and maintenance. This software often tracks what Internet sites the user visits.
An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.
Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by e-mail promotions, online or offline advertising.
An organization that, on behalf of clients, plans marketing and advertising campaigns, drafts and produces advertisements, places advertisements in the media. In interactive advertising, agencies often use third party technology (ad servers) and may place advertisements with publishers, ad networks and other industry participants.
Agency Ad Server
The ad server hosted by the advertising agency.
Aggregate Campaign Data
Data combined from several advertising campaigns to create a segment where campaign level data is not identifiable.
A word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting “stop” in their browser prior to the transfer of all images.Also appears as “balloon text” when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.
An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images,displayed sequentially, giving the appearance of movement.
An intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.
A small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user.
Any browser an ad will impact, regardless of whether it will play the ad.
Distortion that is introduced into audio or video by the compression algorithm (codec). Compressed images may have stray pixels that were not present in the original image. See codec.
The width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).
A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (e.g., age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (e.g., auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (e.g., visited Site X two days ago). Segment or cluster information is derived from the user’s prior online activities (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches made and clicking and purchasing behaviors). Generally, this is anonymous data (non-PII).
An audience is the group of people who visit a specific web site or who are reached by a specific ad network.
The counting of unique users (i.e. audience) and their interaction with online content. At a campaign level, this service is conducted by a third party to validate that a publisher delivered what an advertiser had requested. At the industry level, this service enables media buyers to understand which brokers of online content to negotiate with to reach a specific audience.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on their shared behavioral, demographic, geographic and/or technographic attributes. Audience targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.
Third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.
A third party independent organization that performs audits.
A graphical representation of an individual in a game or other virtual world or environment.
Average Active Sessions (AAS): A metric specific to Digital Audio
See Average active sessions.
Average active sessions
The average number of streams of one minute or more that are active within a time period.
Average view time
Refers to the average amount of time the video ad was played by users.
High-volume, central, generally “long-haul” portion of a data network.
The transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed as kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps) for digital systems; the amount of data that can be transmitted over communications lines in a given time.
A bottleneck that occurs when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single data line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each.
A graphic advertising image displayed on a Web page. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines defining specifications of banner ads.
The exchange of goods and services without the use of cash. The value of the barter is the dollar value of the goods and services being exchanged for advertising. This is a recognized form of revenue under GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles).
A behavioral event is a user-initiated action which may include, but is not limited to: searches, content views, clicks, purchases, and form-based information.
Using previous online user activity (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches, clicks and purchases) to generate a segment which is used to match advertising creative to users (sometimes also called Behavioral Profiling, Interest-based Advertising, or online behavioral advertising). Behavioral targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.
A test version of a product, such as a Web site or software, prior to final release.
Bit rate is a measure of bandwidth which indicates how much data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. Bit rate is usually expressed in kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps).
A blog (a portmanteau of the term ”web log”) is a web-published journal consisting of discrete entries (“posts”) typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first. Blogs are usually the work of a single individual, although corporate blogs often have multiple staff contributors. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning ”to maintain or add content to a blog”.
There are two concepts that surface when targeting media plans to blogs: conversations and conversation phrases. A conversation is a collection of authors/sites and their audience linked by relevant content. A conversation phrase is a combination of keywords and keyword phrases used to associate an author/site, its content and audiences to a conversation.
Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.
Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like search engines to discover Web sites for indexing. Short for “robot.”
Research studies can associate ad effectiveness to measure the impact of online advertising on key branding metrics.
An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate – any bit rate at or above 256 Kbps. Cable modems and DSL all offer broadband connections.
Broadband Video Commercials
TV-like advertisements that may appear as in-page video commercials or before, during, and/or after a variety of content in a player environment including but not limited to, streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content. Broadband video commercials may appear in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content.
A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web.
Businesses whose primary customers are other businesses.
Businesses whose primary customers are consumers.
When a streaming media player temporarily stores portions of a streaming media (e.g., audio or video) file on a client PC until there is enough information for the stream to begin playing.
A persistent, graphical element that appears in the video environment. Clicking on it will take the user to a website.
Bulk E-mail Folder
See Junk E-mail Folder.
Usually refers to a linear video ad with clickable call-to-action; format is usually shorter than full linear ads (i.e. 3-10 seconds) and call-to-action usually can load another video or can bring up a new site while pausing the content.
A user that accesses online content in furtherance of their employment.
1) clickable graphic that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executing a program; 2) buttons can also be ads. See the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelinesfor voluntary guidelines defining specifications of button ads.
(The Children’s Advertising Review Unit)
Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus that reviews advertising and promotional material directed at children in all media. See CARU for more information.
See content delivery network.
(Common Gateway Interface)
CGI’s are used to allow a user to pass data to a Web server, most commonly in a Web-based form. Specifically, CGI scripts are used with forms such as pull-down menus or text-entry areas with an accompanying submit button. The input from the form is processed by a program (the CGI script itself) on a remote Web server.
(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)
Congress enacted the COPPA in 1998 to prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, or disclosure of personally identifiable information from and about children on the Internet. Section 6502(b)(1) of the Act sets forth a series of general privacy protections to prevent unfair or deceptive online information collection from or about children, and directs the Commission to adopt regulations to implement those protections. The Act requires operators of Web sites directed to children and operators who knowingly collect personal information from children to: (1) Provide parents notice of their information practices; (2) obtain prior verifiable parental consent for the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal information from children (with certain limited exceptions for the collection of “online contact information,” e.g., an e-mail address); (3) provide a parent, upon request, with the means to review the personal information collected from his/her child; (4) provide a parent with the opportunity to prevent the further use of personal information that has already been collected, or the future collection of personal information from that child; (5) limit collection of personal information for a child’s online participation in a game, prize offer, or other activity to information that is reasonably necessary for the activity; and (6) establish and maintain reasonable procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of the personal information collected.
(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule)
Issued by the FTC in October 1999 the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule went into effect on April 21, 2000, and implements the requirements of the COPPA by requiring operators of websites or online services directed to children and operators of Web sites or online services who have actual knowledge that the person from whom they seek information is a child (1) to post prominent links on their Web sites to a notice of how they collect, use, and/or disclose personal information from children; (2) with certain exceptions, to notify parents that they wish to collect information from their children and obtain parental consent prior to collecting, using, and/or disclosing such information; (3) not to condition a child’s participation in online activities on the provision of more personal information than is reasonably necessary to participate in the activity; (4) to allow parents the opportunity to review and/or have their children’s information deleted from the operator’s database and to prohibit further collection from the child; and (5) to establish procedures to protect the confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information they collect from children. As directed by the COPPA, the Rule also provides a safe harbor for operators following Commission-approved self-regulatory guidelines. See www.caru.org for more information.
Cost of advertising based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click.
CPC is the abbreviated term for both Cost-per-Click and Cost-per-Customer. Please click on the term you are looking for.
CPC or cost-per-click is the cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received.
CPC or Cost-per-customer is the cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.
Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.
Media term describing the cost of 1,000 impressions. For example, a Web site that charges $1,500 per ad and reports 100,000 impressions has a CPM of $15 ($1,500 divided by 100).
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-per-Transaction.
The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser’s site after the successful completion of an online sale.
See CPO (Cost-per-Order).
(Cost per Targeted Thousand Impressions)
Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18-25. The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions.
(Customer Relationship Management)
Business practices that foster customer care, loyalty, and/or customer support.
(Cascading Style Sheet)
A stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. CSS provides a more elegant alternative to straight HTML to quickly specify the look and feel of a single Web page or a group of multiple Web pages.
A device that permits high speed connectivity to the Internet over a cable television system.
Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Caches can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache.
The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimize or prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user or proxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.
Cached ad impressions
The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.
The process of copying a Web element (page or ad) for later reuse. On the Web, this copying is normally done in two places: in the user’s browser and on proxy servers. When a user makes a request for a Web element, the browser looks into its own cache for the element; then a proxy, if any; followed by the intended server. Caching is done to reduce redundant network traffic, resulting in increased overall efficiency of the Internet.
In traditional marketing, an campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme. In digital advertising, a campaign will refer to a set of ad buys from a specific ad network or publisher.
Case Study Road Show
The IAB’s Case Study Road Show (CSRS) brings a day of cross-platform, cross-objective digital case studies to media professionals in various cities. The Spring 2012 CSRS occurs in the following cities:
Online interactive communication between two or more people on the Web. One can “talk” in real time with other people in a chat room, typically by typing, though voice chat is available.
An area online where people can communicate with others in real-time.
A ”click” can denote several different things.
1) the electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and from page to page within a site; 2) a comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Web site or third party ad server.
The measurement of a user clicking on a link that re-directs the user’s web-enabled device to another Web destination.
Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.
Click fraud is a type of internet crime that occurs in pay per click online advertising when a person, automated script, or computer program imitates a legitimate user of a web browser clicking on an ad, for the purpose of generating a charge per click without having actual interest in the target of the ad’s link.
Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.
A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while web browsing. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application, the action is logged on a client or inside the web server, as well as possibly the web browser and ad servers. Clickstream data analysis can be used to create a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website, or predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website.
A computer or software program that contacts a server to obtain data via the Internet or another network. Internet explorer, Outlook, and other browsers and e-mail programs are examples of software clients.
Client-initiated ad impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods – server-initiated and client-initiated. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process. See server-initiated ad impression.
Client side refers to activities taking place on the client as opposed to on the server. Examples are client side counting and client side redirects.
Co-op advertising is the creation of advertisements by one party (usually retailers) that include the specific mention of a second party (usually manufacturers) where the second party will pay some or all of the advertising cost.
Short for compressor/decompressor. Codecs are computer algorithms that are used to compress the size of audio, video, and image files for streaming over a data network or storage on a computer. Apple’s QuickTime, Microsoft’s Windows Media Video, and MP3 are examples of common codecs.
The activity of conveying information by or to people or groups. Examples of online communication include email, instant messaging, text-messaging, group-messaging.
The failure of a Web browser/Web server to successfully request/transfer a document.
Both Linear and Non-linear Video ad products have the option of pairing their core video ad product with what is commonly referred to as companion ads. Commonly text, display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience, can run alongside either or both the video or ad content. The primary purpose of the Companion Ad product is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video content experience. Companion Ads may offer click-through interactivity and rich media experiences such as expansion of the ad for further engagement opportunities.
Completes refer to whether the video played to completion.
Site content is the textual, visual or aural content is encountered as part of the user experience on a website. It may include, among other things: text, images, sounds, animations and videos. Web content is dominated by the “page” concept, with multiple pages of related content typically forming a site.
Content delivery network
A service that hosts online assets and provides content management via servers located around the globe to reduce the latency of downloads to users.
Content distribution network
See content delivery network.
Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as “Web advertorial”.
Existing contextual ad engines deliver text and image ads to non-search content pages. Ads are matched to keywords extracted from content. Advertisers can leverage existing keyboard-based paid search campaigns and gain access to a larger audience.
Targeting content that deals with specific topics, as determined by a contextual scanning technology.
A conversion occurs when the user performs the specific action that the advertiser has defined as the campaign goal. Conversions are often tracked by a web beacon, called a conversion pixel.
The percentage of users who complete a desired action (e.g., purchase or registration) compared to all users who were exposed to an online ad.
A conversion pixel is a specific type of web beacon that is triggered to indicate that a user has successfully completed a specific action such as a purchase or registration. This user action is considered a conversion.
A cookie, also known as an HTTP cookie, web cookie, or browser cookie, is a string of text sent from a web server to a user’s browser that the browser is expected to send back to the web server in subsequent interactions.
A method of enabling data appending by linking one company’s user identifier to another company’s user identifier.
Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.
Core ad video
The essential video asset, often repurposed from offline. Can be displayed directly in the player, or in a more customized presentation.
Cost Per Unique Visitor
Total cost of the placement or application, divided by the number of unique visitors.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.
Cross-Site Publisher Analytics
Services that provide normative metrics about and estimates of multiple publishers’ inventory.
Cross-site Advertiser Analytics
Software or services that allow an advertiser to optimize and audit the delivery of creative content on pre-bought publisher inventory. Data can range from numbers of pages visited, to content visited, to purchases made by a particular user. Such data is used to surmise future habits of user or best placement for a particular advertiser based on success
Taking a task that would conventionally be performed by a contractor or employee and turning it over to a typically large, undefined group of people via an open call for responses.
A public venue like a bar or cafe which contains computers with access to the Internet.
(Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language)
An extended set of HTML commands which are used by Web designers to create much greater animation and interactivity than HTML.
(Distinct Point of Origin)
A unique address from which a browser connects to a Web site on the Internet.
(Digital Video Recorder)
A high capacity hard drive that is embedded in a set-top box, which records video programming from a television set. DVRs enable the viewer to pause, fast forward, and store TV programming.
In interactive advertising, the computer science definition of data is most often used – that is, information in a form suitable for use with a computer. Most commonly, three types of data are associated with cookies for interactive advertising:
A data aggregator is an organization that collects and compiles data from various sources, often offering results or access for resale. There are three primary types of data aggregators:
User data from one source is linked to a user’s profile from another source.
Data Management Platform
A Data Management Platform (DMP) is a system that allows the collection of audience intelligence by advertisers and ad agencies, thereby allowing better ad targeting in subsequent campaigns.
An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner. In normal practice, the content and banner are rendered first and the daughter window appears thereafter.
Deep packet inspection
A form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data and/or header part of a packet as it passes an inspection point. In the context of online advertising, it is used to collect data, typically through an Internet Service Provider, which can be used to display targeted advertising to users based on previous web activity.
Demand side platform
A demand side platform (DSP), also called buy side optimizer and buy side platform is a technology platform that provides centralized and aggregated media buying from multiple sources including ad exchanges, ad networks and sell side platforms, often leveraging real time bidding capabilities of these sources.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on demographic information such as age, gender and income which may come from, site registration data or an inference-based mechanism.
Common characteristics used for population or audience segmentation, such as age, gender, household income, etc.
Software that is installed on a computer.
Digital Video Server
A robust, dedicated computer at a central location that receives command requests from the television viewer through a video-on-demand application. Once it receives this request, it then instantly broadcasts specific digital video streams to that viewer.
Signatures for electronic documents. They establish identity and therefore can be used to establish legal responsibility and the complete authenticity of whatever they are affixed to — in effect, creating a tamper-proof seal.
Digital subscriber line
A digital subscriber line (DSL) connection is a high-speed dedicated digital circuit from a given location to the telephone company’s central office, using normal copper telephone lines. DSL is the main form of consumer broadband worldwide. DSL is a general term that includes several variations:
A form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination web page, generally set off in a box at the top or bottom or to one side of the content of the page.
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Every domain name consists of one top or highlevel and one or more lower-level designators. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level domains include .com (commercial), .net (network), .edu (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military); .biz (business), .info (informational),.name (personal), .pro (professional), .aero (air transport and civil aviation), .coop (business cooperatives such as credit unions) and .museum. Geographic domains designate countries of origin, such as .us (United States), .fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom), etc.
When an online user accesses more and more pages of the Web site, i.e., he or she goes deeper into the content of the site.
The percentage of users exposed to a given piece of rich media content or advertising who interact with that content moving their cursors over it (but not clicking).
The amount of time that a user keeps his or her cursor stationary over a given icon, graphic, ad unit, or other piece of Web content. Often used in the context of expandable ads, where the ad increases in size only when users roll over it with their mice. Usually calculated and reported as an average across all viewers of a piece of content.
Dynamic IP address
An IP address (assigned by an ISP to a client PC) that changes periodically.
Dynamic ad insertion
The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user’s request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.
Delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.
The process of selling products or services via the Web.
Banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorships that appear in e-mail newsletters, e-mail marketing campaigns and other commercial e-mail communications. Includes all types of electronic mail (e.g., basic text or HTML-enabled).
An e-mail that cannot be delivered to the mailbox provider and is sent back to the e-mail Service Provider that sent it. A bounce is classified as either “hard” or “soft.” Hard bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a permanent reason, such as a non-existent address. Soft bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a temporary issue, such as a full inbox or an unavailable ISP server.
Within a mailbox provider, the default, primary folder that stores delivered e-mail messages.
E-mail Mailbox Provider
The e-mail program, and by extension the server, that hosts the targeted e-mail address.
E-mail Preview Pane
A small window within a mailbox provider that allows the user to view some e-mail content without opening the e-mail.
E-mail Service Provider (ESP)
A business or organization that provides the e-mail campaign delivery technology. ESPs may also provide services for marketing, advertising and general communication purposes.
Advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.
ETV (Enhanced Television)
A type of interactive television technology which allows content producers to send data and graphical “enhancements” through a small part of the regular analog broadcast signal called the Vertical Blanking Interval. These enhancements appear as overlays on the video and allow viewers to click on them if they are watching TV via special set-top box/software services.
Electronic programming guide
An electronic programming guide is an application that allows the viewer to interactively select television programming.
A hardware or software application used to compress audio and video signals for the purpose of streaming. See codec.
The process of compressing and separating a file into packets so that it can be delivered over a network.
Securing digital information so that it is unreadable without the use of digital keys.
A networking technology that links computers together in local area networks.
Primarily used for click-through tracking today, but also for companion banner interactions and video session tracking (e.g. 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%).
Expandable banners are Rich Media Ads that expand in size when a user rolls over or clicks on them. They reveal more advertising information and are designed to grab the attention of the user. The IAB provides guidelines for expandable banners in the Rich Media Ads section of the Display Advertising Creative Format Guidelines Quick Reference Guide.
Explicit Profile Data Targeting
Explicit data is “registration quality data” collected either online or offline. For online registration data, the user has certain attributes in his or her registration profile at a particular site or service, and that data is associated with the user’s Web cookie or some sort of audience database when the user next logs in. Offline registration data includes the sorts of data held in the massive offline direct response industry databases built up over the last several decades. These are then matched to a user online when that user logs in somewhere that is a partner of the data company. The site at which the user logs in, usually an online mail or similar site, sends the name/email combination to the data company, which then makes the match and sends back data. Ethical data providers do not put personally-identifiable data into the cookie or audience database, but rather anonymize the data (e.g., “male” rather than a name or address).
An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders via a valid username and password.
Slang term for audience; the number of people who view a certain website or advertisement.
Frequently asked questions.
(File Transfer Protocol)
Internet protocol which facilitates downloading or uploading digital files.
Failure to transfer
Content requested by a browser can fail to transfer if the page is abandoned by the browser which requested it (see abandonment) or if the server is unable to send the complete page, including the ads (known as an error or a communications error).
Fiber optic cable
Strands of glass used to transmit data—encoded as light—at extremely high data rates. Fiber optics is widely deployed in backbone data networks today and is beginning to be used for “lastmile” broadband connections as well.
Fiber to the home
Data networking infrastructure base on fiber optic cables being deployed by some telcos and other ISPs to provide faster broadband internet connectivity and other services.
The process of removing robotic activity and error codes from measurement records to make the remaining records representative of valid human Internet actions.
IAB voluntary guidelines for removing non-human activity in the reported measurement of ad impressions, page impressions, unique visitors and clicks. See the IAB’s Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.
A security barrier controlling communication between a personal or corporate computer network and the Internet. A firewall is based on rules which allow and disallow traffic to pass, based on the level of security and filtering a network administrator wishes to employ.
An inflammatory opinion or criticism distributed by e-mail or posted on a newsgroup or message board.
Adobe’s vector-based rich media file format which is used to display interactive animations on a Web page.
An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the Web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.
The line below which a user has to scroll to see content not immediately visible when a Web page loads in a browser. Ads or content displayed “above the fold” are visible without any end-user interaction. Monitor size and resolution determine where on a Web page the fold lies.
The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be.
Multiple, independent sections used to create a single Web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one “master” file to control the placement of each section. When a user requests a page with frames, several files will be displayed as panes. Sites using frames report one page request with several panes as multiple page requests. IAB ad campaign measurement guidelines call for the counting of one file per frame set as a page impression.
The limit of how many times a given ad will be shown to a unique cookie during a session or within a specified time period.
Full screen views
Refers to the number of impressions where the video was played in full screen mode (where available)
(Graphic Interchange Format)
A standard web graphic format which uses compression to store and display images.
(General Packet Radio Service)
Digital mobile radio technology permitting moderate data rates along with voice communication. Evolution from the GSM standard; referred to as “2.5 G.” See 3G.
(Global System for Mobile)
The wireless telephone standard in Europe and most of the rest of the world outside North America; also used by T-Mobile and AT&T, among other US operators.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on zip code, area code, city, DMA, state, and/or country derived from user-declared registration information or inference-based mechanism.
A data point used in ad targeting, the location of the user may have been declared by the user (either actively through a form, or passively through GPS), or may have been extrapolated from their IP address or other sources.
Displaying (or preventing the display of) content based on automated or assumed knowledge of an end user’s position in the real world. Relevant to both PC and mobile data services.
One gigabyte equals 1000 megabytes.
Graphical user interface
A way of enabling users to interact with the computer using visual icons and a mouse rather than a command-line prompt/interpreter.
The total number of times an ad is served, including duplicate downloads to the same person.
Gross rating point
Gross rating point (GRP) is a term used in traditional advertising to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. It is the product of the percentage of the target audience reached by an advertisement, times the frequency they see it in a given campaign (frequency × % reached). For example, a television advertisement that is aired 5 times reaching 50% of the target audience each time it is aired would have a GRP of 250 (5 × 50%).
Campaign tactic involving the placement of often humorous brand-related messages in unexpected places either online or in the real world; intended to provoke word-of-mouth and build buzz.
A higher quality signal resolution using a digital format for the transmission and reception of TV signals. HDTV provides about five times more picture information (picture elements or pixels) than conventional television, creating clarity, wider aspect ratio, and digital quality sound.
(Hypertext Markup Language)
A set of codes called markup tags in a plain text file that determine what information is retrieved and how it is rendered by a browser. There are two kinds of markup tags: anchor and format. Anchor tags determine what is retrieved, and format tags determine how it is rendered. Browsers receive HTML pages from the Internet and use the information to display text, graphics, links and other elements as they were intended by a Website’s creator.
(Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol)
The format most commonly used to transfer documents on the World Wide Web.
The site in a cable system or broadband coaxial network where the programming originates and the distribution network starts. Signals are usually received off the air from satellites, microwave relays, or fiber-optic cables at the head end for distribution.
A way to measure a user’s unique identity. This measure uses deduction or inference based on a rule or algorithm which is valid for that server. For example, the combination of IP address and user agent can be used to identify a user in some cases. If a server receives a new request from the same client within 30 minutes, it is inferred that a new request comes from the same user and the time since the last page request was spent viewing the last page. Also referred to as an inference.
A menu in a web browser which displays recently visited sites. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where a browser was before visiting a particular site.
The record of a single online transaction event stored in a log file. One page view may contain multiple hits, one for each image on a web page.
A user that access online content from their residence.
The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes visitors and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.
Any computer on a network that offers services or connectivity to other computers on the network. A host has an IP address associated with it.
An ad unit that is sold within the video content experience. Mouse action over the video highlights objects that can be clicked. The click action initiates a Linear video commercial or takes the user to a website.
Pull-down or pop-up menus often displayed on browsers or search engines that contain new or popular sites.
Ads for a product or service from the same company. “Revenues” from house ads should not be included in reported revenues.
Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. See CPM pricing model and performance-based pricing model.
A clickable link, e.g., on a Web page or within an e-mail, that sends the user to a new URL when activated.
Any text that contains links connecting it with other text or files on the Internet.
Interactive Advertising Bureau
Please see Interactive Advertising Bureau.
(Interactive Marketing Unit)
The standard ad unit sizes endorsed by IAB. See the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelines for more information.
IP-based geo-targeted advertising is delivered to a user’s geographic location as determined by his or her Internet Protocol (IP) address.
Generally refers to video programming offered by telecom companies over copper wire. Often misused to refer to PC-based video.
An IP address is the numerical address assigned to each computer on the internet so that its location and activities can be distinguished from those of other computers.
(Integrated Services Digital Network)
Faster-than-dial-up connections to the Internet over copper phone wires. DSL has in large part replaced ISDN. See DSL.
Internet service provider.
(Information Technology Industry Council)
Represents the leading U.S. providers of information technology products and services. It advocates growing the economy through innovation and supports free-market policies. See itic.org for more information.
Any technology that allows for two-way communication between the audience and the television service provider (such as the broadcaster, cable operator, set-top box manufacturer).
A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.
(Also called a View) A single display of online content to a user’s web-enabled device. Many websites sell advertising space by the number of impressions displayed to users. An online advertisement impression is a single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a users screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression. However, the ad server may be programmed to exclude from the count certain non-qualifying activity such as a reload, internal user actions, and other events that the advertiser and ad serving company agreed to not count.
In-Banner Video Ads
Leverage the banner space to deliver a video experience as opposed to another static or rich media format. The format relies on the existence of display ad inventory on the page for its delivery
In-Page Video Ads
Delivered most often as a stand alone video ad and do not generally have other content associated with them. This format is typically home page or channel based and depends on real estate within the page dedicated for the video player.
In-Stream Video Ads
Played before, during or after the streaming video content that the consumer has requested. These ads cannot typically be stopped from being played (particularly with pre-roll). This format is frequently used to monetize the video content that the publisher is delivering. In-Stream ads can be played inside short or long form video and rely on video content for their delivery. There are four different types of video content where in-stream may play, UGC (User Generated Content/Video), Syndicated, Sourced and Journalistic.
In-Text Video Ads
Delivered from highlighted words and phrases within the text of web content. The ads are user activated and delivered only when a user chooses to move their mouse over a relevant word or phrase.
A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect. Also known as click-downs, click-ups and click-withins. See ad clicks; 302 redirect.
Actual placement of an ad in a document, as recorded by the ad server.
Purchase order between a seller of interactive advertising and a buyer (usually an advertiser or its agency).
A method of communicating in real-time, one-to-one or in groups over the internet. Users assemble “buddy lists” which reflect the availability (or “presence”) of people with whom they communicate.
Software tools which help the user find information of specific interest to him/her. The user’s profile is continually refined and improved based on the user’s acceptance or rejection of recommendations over time.
The proportion of users who interact with an ad or application. Some will be involuntary depending on where the ad or application is placed on screen, so it is highly dependent on placement.
Interactions: A metric specific to Digital Audio
Any of a wide variety of metrics that indicate how many users took an action in response to an ad message, and or the depth of that interaction.
Interactive Advertising Bureau
IAB is a non-profit trade association devoted exclusively to maximizing the use and effectiveness of interactive advertising and marketing. See iab.net for more information.
All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.
Internal page impressions
Web site activity that is generated by individuals with IP addresses known to be affiliated with the Web site owner. Internal activity that is associated with administration and maintenance of the site should be excluded from the traffic or measurement report.
The worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols known as TCP/IP.
Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat (commonly termed ”IRC”) is a protocol for the real-time exchange of Internet text messages. It is designed for many-to-many communication named discussion forums (called ”channels”), but contains features that allow one-to-one communication, as well as the ability to transfer files. The IRC protocol was formally defined by RFC 1459 in 1993.
Internet marketing, also known as web marketing, online marketing, webvertising, or e-marketing, is referred to as the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet.
The internet protocol is the basis for addressing and routing packets across a network of networks. See IP address.
Internet service provider
An internet service provider (ISP) is a business or organization that provides internet access and related services.
Ads that appear between two content pages. Also known as transition ads, intermercial ads and splash pages.
A network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organization, usually a corporation, and is accessible only by the organization’s members, employees or others with authorization.
See Ad inventory.
A smallish still or animated graphic often overlays directly onto video content. Typically used as a less-intrusive initial call-to-action. Normally when a viewer clicks or interacts with the invitation graphic, they expand into the ad’s full expression, which might be a simple auto-play video or an interactive experience
Standard web graphic file format that uses a compression technique to reduce graphic file sizes.
A programming language designed for building applications on the Internet. It allows for advanced features, increased animation detail and real-time updates. Small applications called Java applets can be downloaded from a server and executed by Java-compatible browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
Content that was shot and used by the actual publisher. MSNBC journalist shooting a video and using the video for their own purposes.
Jump page ad
Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the advertiser’s site or the publisher’s site.
Junk E-mail Folder
A folder within an e-mail client or on an E-mail Service Provider server that stores e-mail messages that are identified, either by the user or by an automated spam filter, as undesired or undesirable.
Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals.
Specific word(s) entered into a search engine by the user that result(s) in a list of Web sites related to the key word. Keywords can be purchased by advertisers in order to embed ads linking to the advertiser’s site within search results [[SEM|(see “Search engine marketing.”)]]
Targeting content that contains specific keywords.
(Local Area Network)
A group of computers connected together (a network) at one physical location.
See Location based service.
The delay between making an online request or command and receiving a response. See latency.
An IMU size. The IAB’s voluntary guidelines include seven Interactive Marketing Unit (IMU) ad formats; two vertical units and five large rectangular units. For more information, see the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelines.
Latency can be seen as:
• The time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection
• The visible delay between request and display of content and ad. Latency sometimes leads to the user leaving the site prior to the opportunity to see. In streaming media, latency can create stream degradation if it causes the packets, which must be received and played in order, to arrive out of order.
Fees advertisers pay to Internet advertising companies that refer qualified purchase inquiries (e.g., auto dealers which pay a fee in exchange for receiving a qualified purchase inquiry online) or provide consumer information (demographic, contact, and behavioral) where the consumer opts into being contacted by a marketer (email, postal, telephone, fax). These processes are priced on a performance basis (e.g., cost-per-action, -lead or -inquiry), and can include user applications (e.g., for a credit card), surveys, contests (e.g., sweepstakes) or registrations.
Linear Video Ads
Experienced In-Stream, which is presented before, between, or after the video content is consumed by the user. One of the key characteristics of Linear video ads is the ad takes over the full view of the video.
A clickable connection between two Web sites. Formally referred to as a hyperlink.
A mailing list comprised of e-mail addresses.
A program that automatically sends e-mail to a list of subscribers or listserv.
Location based service
a location based service (LBS) is mobile data service related to an end user’s immediate location. Examples include store or service locators and friend finders.
A file that records transactions that have occurred on the Web server. Some of the types of data which are collected are: date/time stamp, URL served, IP address of requestor, status code of request, user agent string, previous URL of requestor, etc. Use of the extended log file format is preferable.
The identification or name used to access a computer, network or site.
Mobile commerce, the ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled cell phone.
(Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A method of encoding a file for delivery over the Internet.
Mobile Marketing Association
Industry trade organization dedicated to facilitating the growth of advertising on mobile phones.
(Massively Multiplayer Role-Playing Game)
Any of a variety of three dimensional, highly immersive, PC or console based video games where many players interact, competing or co-operating to achieve goals in real time.
Codec most commonly used for digital music online. Generic term for any digital music file, regardless of codec used to create or play it.
1) the file format that is used to compress and transmit movies or video clips online; 2) standards set by the Motion Picture Exports Group for video media.
(Media Rating Council)
A non-profit trade association dedicated to assuring valid, reliable and effective syndicated audience research. The MRC performs audits of Internet measurements as well as traditional media measurements.
(Multiple System Operator)
A generic industry acronym for a cable TV system operator; more correctly, any cable network operator with more than one cable TV system.
An automatically distributed e-mail message on a particular topic going to certain individuals.
Welcome to the IAB Interactive Advertising Wiki
Because our industry’s jargon and processes are unique, we’ve dedicated this wiki to be a centralized spot where marketers, agencies and interactive publishers can collaboratively populate a database of information on interactive advertising. Ultimately, this space will serve as a reference to both industry veterans and newcomers alike.
Additional ad impressions which are negotiated in order to make up for the shortfall of ads delivered versus the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.
A company that derives revenue from publishing content via one or more means of distribution, e.g., print publishing, television, radio, the Internet
Data that provides information about other data. This includes descriptions of the characteristics of information, such as quality, origin, context, content and structure.
Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from initial ad. The user stays on the publisher’s Web site, but has access to more information from the advertiser than a display ad allows.
Publishing very brief, spontaneous posts to a public Website, usually via a mobile device or wirelessly connected laptop
A linear video spot that appears in the middle of the video content. See preroll and postroll.
Mobile/location-based targeting refers to a way to target advertisements on mobile devices such as smartphones or feature phones, GPS receivers, tablets (such as iPads) and soon on many mobile laptops. On phones and tablets, such advertisements can appear in a mobile Web browser or within an app. Geographic targeting information can come in the form of either a confirmed location or a derived location.
Device which transfers digital signals to analog signals and vice versa suitable for sending across phone or cable lines.
A key observation regarding the growth in computer power experienced over the past several decades. Gordon Moore of Intel stated that the speed of semiconductor processors doubles every 18 months. So far this has remained true.
Sometimes referred to as rollover, hover.
A single entity that owns and operates multiple web sites, each under a separate domain.
(Network Advertising Initiative)
A cooperative group of network advertisers which has developed a set of privacy principles in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission. The NAI provides consumers with explanations of Internet advertising practices and how they affect both consumers and the Internet. See networkadvertising.org for more information.
A term that is used to describe the informal rules of conduct (“do’s and don’ts”) of online behavior.
An electronic bulletin board devoted to talking about a specific topic and open to everybody. Only a handful of newsgroups permit the posting of advertising.
(also called out-of-session data) – information that cannot be gleaned from the current, single event of a visitor.
Non-linear Video Ads
An Non-linear Video ad product runs parallel to the video content so the user still has the option of viewing the content. Common Non-linear ad products include overlays which are shown directly over the content video itself, and product placements which are ads placed within the video content itself. Non-linear video ads can be delivered as text, graphical banners or buttons, or as video overlays.
Someone who visits a Web site and elects not to, or is not required to, provide certain information, and hence may be denied access to part(s) of the site.
Nonqualifying page impressions
Page impressions which should be excluded from traffic or measurement reports, such as unsuccessful transfers of requested documents, successful transfers of requested documents to a robot or spider, and/or pages in a frame set. See frames.
(Opportunity to See)
Same as page display – when a page is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.
When a site forwards its log files to an off-site Web research service for analysis.
The ability to request video, audio, or information to be sent to the screen immediately by clicking something on the screen referring to that choice.
Video media that is available to a user at the convenience of that user. Youtube, Hulu, and Netflix On Demand are examples of services that offer On-demand video.
When a server has an appropriate software program to measure and analyze traffic received on its own site.
Online Privacy Alliance (OPA)
A group of corporations and associations who have come together to introduce and promote business-wide actions that create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals’ privacy online. See privacyalliance.org for more information.
A creator and/or aggregator of online content, which often monetizes user visits by displaying advertisements.
Online Publishers’ Association (OPA)
Trade association representing a segment of online publishers. See the Online-Publishers.org for more information.
An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined in simple systems.
Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services. See permission marketing.
Lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.
When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company’s mailing list.
An overlay is a media element that ‘floats’ above other content. This could be text floating over video, or an expanding banner ad expanding over page content.
A banner ad that appears in the bottom 20% of the video window. Click action initiates a Linear video spot or takes the user to a website. Sold on a CPM and CPC basis.
(Platform for Privacy Preferences Project)
Browser feature that will analyze privacy policies and allow a user to control their privacy needs.
See Portable Document Format.
See Personally identifiable information.
(Personal Identification Number)
A group of numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured Web site and/or a secure area of a Web site. See password.
(Privacy Leadership Initiative)
A partnership of CEOs from 15 corporations and 9 business associations using research to create a climate of trust that will accelerate acceptance of the Internet and the emerging Information Economy, both online and offline, as a safe and secure marketplace. See understandingprivacy.org for more information.
(Personal Video Recorder)
A program used to monitor and record activity and to detect problems with Web transactions on a network.
A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.
When the page is actually seen by the user. Some platforms, like Facebook cache preview images for applications, which can mean that page views are not counted until a user clicks through to an application canvas page.
When a page is successfully displayed on the user’s computer screen.
A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user. See the IAB’s Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.
The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user’s interaction with a Web site.
When the page is actually seen by the user. Note: this is not measurable today; the best approximation today is provided by page displays.
an impression offered to a media buyer with the right of first refusal, such that when this right is exercised the impression is offered to another media buyer.
A group of letters and/or numbers which allow a user access to a secured Web site.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad or e-mail message. See CPC.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads. See CPM.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. See CPL.
An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. See CPS.
The transmission of a file from one individual to another, typically through an intermediary. Individuals sharing files via P2P do not necessarily know one another, rather applications like BitTorrent manage file transmissions from those who have part or all of the file to those who want it.
Performance pricing model
An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.
When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual. See opt-in.
Cookies that remain a client hard drive until they expire (as determined by the website that set them) or are deleted by the end user.
Aggregating previous online activity to match non-ad related information to users.
Software or service that enables websites to match non-ad related information to user.
Personally identifiable information
Personally identifiable information (PII), also known as personally identifying information, is user data that can be used to contact the user, either directly or through a lookup.
An image tag or code that redirects a user browser to another pixel not directly placed on the publisher page.
(also called Beacon or Web Beacon) – An HTML object or code that transmits information to a third-party server, where the user is the first party and the site they are interacting with is the second party. Pixels are used to track online user activity, such as viewing a particular web page or completing a conversion process.
The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs, e.g., Windows, Macintosh or Unix.
Online video content can be broken down by content verticals such as news, music, tv shows, movies, sports, UGC, casual games, automotive, travel, business, b to b, careers, communities, technology, education, directories, government, non-profi t, family, health, real estate, personals, science, adult and gambling. There are hundreds of sub-content verticals under the aforementioned.
A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, plug-in applications are recognized by the browser and their function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.
Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.
Any advertising experience where visiting a website in an initial browser window initiates a secondary browser window to deliver an ad impression directly above the initial browser window.
Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line-speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.
Portable Document Format
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a digital file format originally developed by Adobe used to represent documents independently of software, operating system, and hardware. The PDF files are designed to contain all information needed to consistently present text, fonts, graphics, and other elements to the user.
A Web site that often serves as a starting point for a Web user’s session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of Web sites, news, weather, e-mail, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps, and chat or message boards.
Entry on a message board, blog, or other chronological online forum.
A linear video spot that appears after the video content completes. See Preroll and Midroll.
Storing advertising or content in a computer’s RAM or hard disk memory before it is displayed on the user’s screen, rather than at the time that it plays, to reduce delays in rendering. See cache and caching.
A preroll video ad is an In-Stream Video Ads that occurs before the video content the user has requested. See also postroll and midroll.
A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can optout; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data.
Privacy seal program
A program that certifies the Web site owner complies with the site’s proposed policy. Examples include TRUSTe and BBBOnline.
Third party validation of internal control processes associated with measurement. See audit.
Profile is the collection of attributes describing segments, clusters or aggregated data, including prior online activity of a user.
A profile aggregator collects data from various third-party sources to generate behavioral profiles.
Profile Database a server-side store of behavioral profiles.
The practice of tracking information about consumers’ interests by monitoring their movements online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.
A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
Intermediaries between end users and Web sites such as ISPs, commercial online services, and corporate networks. Proxy servers hold the most commonly and recently used content from the Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security.
An individual or organization that prepares, issues, and disseminates content for public distribution or sale via one or more media.
Publisher Ad Tag
Code that is placed on a publisher’s web page that calls an ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.
An object embedded in a web page (typically a 1×1 image pixel) that calls a web server for purposes of tracking some kind of user activity.
The user activity of completing an e-commerce transaction.
Pro-active, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats.
Push down banners
Push Down Banners are banners that Push website content down while expanding the banner to show more advertising space. They are usually triggered by either Rolling over the banner, Clicking the Banner, or sometimes autoload once the website loads. Users then click a custom designed Close button to minimize the banner.
Refers to whether the video played to its 25% and 75% points.
A request for information, usually to a search engine.
(Return on Investment)
Net profit divided by investment.
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.
The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.
RSS or “Really Simple Syndication” is a process for publishing content on the Internet that facilitates moving that content into other environments. For example, top news stories on a newspaper website can be published as an RSS “feed” and pulled into and delivered via a Web portal site. RSS Readers are software programs or websites that enable users to subscribe to one or more RSS feeds, delivering content and information from multiple sources into a single user interface and environment.
Software or website that aggregates syndicated content (e.g., news headlines, blogs, and podcasts) into a single location for easy viewing.
RSS Readers are software programs or websites that enable users to subscribe to one or more RSS feeds, delivering content and information from multiple sources into a single user interface and environment.
The RTB acronym indicates a ”’real-time system for either bidding on or buying”’ ad inventory. The initial RTB ecosystems evolved from the efforts of DSPs to create a more efficient exchange of inventory. Due to these roots, RTB ecosystems put significant emphasis on user information (demographic and behavioral data, for example), while discounting the situation information (the publisher and context).
The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.
1) unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience; 2) the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.
Events that happen “live” at a particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time.
When used in reference to online advertising, one server assigning an ad-serving function to another server, often operated by a third company operating on behalf of an agency.
Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.
The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL. Also known as source of a visit.
The address of the webpage that a user previously visited prior to following a link.
The user activity of subscribing to a website or requesting additional information by filling in personally-identifying contact details.
Unique visitor who has accessed a Web site more than once over a specific time period.
Refers to the number of times a user requested to see the video ad again (where available).
(or re-targeting) – The use of a pixel tag or other code to enable a third-party to recognize particular users outside of the domain from which the activity was collected. See Creative Retargeting, Site Retargeting.
The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.
See Yield Management.
Rich Media Vendor
A company that specializes in the creation of rich media ads.
A roadblock ad in digital marketing is a full screen ad that is displayed before any page content. This ad type is similar to a pre-roll in digital video advertising.
Search engine marketing
A form of Internet Marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the Search Engine result pages.
Search engine optimization
SEO is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via “natural” (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results.
(Standard Generalized Markup Language)
The parent language for HTML.
(Short Message Service)
Standard for sending and receiving short (160 character) text messages via mobile handsets.
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used to transfer e-mail.
A subset of a universe whose properties are studied to gain information about that universe.
The source from which the sample is drawn.
A way of collecting information from a web page, whereby a remote computer program copies information from a website that is designed to display information to a user.
Files that initiate routines like generating Web pages dynamically in response to user input.
Fees advertisers pay Internet companies to list and/or link their company site or domain name to a specific search word or phrase (includes paid search revenues). Search categories include:
• Paid listings—text links appear at the top or side of search results for specific keywords. The more a marketer pays, the higher the position it gets. Marketers only pay when a user clicks on the text link.
• Contextual search—text links appear in an article based on the context of the content, instead of a user-submitted keyword. Payment only occurs when the link is clicked.
• Paid inclusion—guarantees that a marketer’s URL is indexed by a search engine. The listing is determined by the engine’s search algorithms.
• Site optimization—modifies a site to make it easier for search engines to automatically index the site and hopefully result in better placement in results.
A click originating from a list of links returned by a query to a search engine.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based one or more searches or search click events.
Local search targeting helps advertisers target users when they look for places, businesses, housing, entertainment, etc. in specific geographies using a search engine (such as Google or Bing). This allows advertisers to present highly relevant localized offers and advertisements to users.
A website that provides a searchable index of online content, whereby users enter keywords describing what they are seeking and the website returns links related to this search query.
(also called Data Segment or audience) – A set of users who share one or more similar attributes.
The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered.
Sell side platform
A sell side platform (SSP), also called sell side optimizer, inventory aggregator, and yield optimizer is a technology platform that provides outsourced media selling and ad network management services for publishers. A sell side platform business model resembles that of an ad network in that it aggregates ad impression inventory. However, asell side platform serves publishers exclusively, and does not provide services for advertisers.
A type of contextual targeting that also incorporates semantic techniques to understand page meaning and/or sentiment.
The sequence position of an event is whether it was the first, last, or nth in sequence. Determining the ”first” event is not perfectly reliable in attribution efforts, since cookie churn and scope issues may mask the true first event.
A computer which distributes files which are shared across a LAN, WAN or the Internet. Also known as a “host”.
Server-initiated ad impression
One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods server-initiated and client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher’s ad server or the Web content server, or later in the process. See client-initiated ad impression.
Server centric measurement
Audience measurement derived from server logs.
A process whereby a user’s browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a Web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference. Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of e-mail newsletters, the request for Web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized Web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre-determined self selections.
A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.
Server side refers to activities taking place on the server as opposed to on the client. Examples are server side counting and server side redirects.
1) a sequence of Internet activity made by one user at one site. If a user makes no request from a site during a 30 minute period of time, the next content or ad request would then constitute the beginning of a new visit; 2) a series of transactions performed by a user that can be tracked across successive Web sites. For example, in a single session, a user may start on a publisher’s Web site, click on an advertisement and then go to an advertiser’s Web site and make a purchase. See visit.
Session Starts (SS) : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The number of streams of one minute or more that are started within a time period.
These are temporary and are erased when the browser exits at the end of a web surfing session. See cookie.
A device electronic device that connects to a TV providing connectivity to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.
A browser plug-in developed by Macromedia (now part of Adobe) which allows multimedia objects to appear on the Web (animation, audio and video).
Intelligent agent which searches for the best price.
Single-Site Publisher Ad Server
Single-site Publisher Ad Servers focus on maximizing the yield to the publisher.
Single-site Publisher Analytics
Software or services that analyze information about users, including metrics such as unique visitors and site usage. The collected data is used only on behalf of the site from which the data is collected.
Audience measurement derived from a Web site’s own server logs.
Ability for the buyer of media (typically an advertisement) to understand the location and context within which the media will be displayed. Transparency can be at the level of web property (site), page content (page) or position (specific location within page). Site transparency, in the context of a network or an exchange, refers to the ability of a buyer of inventory to know the exact identity of the website domain or page on which they have shown advertisements.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to previous site visitors when they are on third-party web sites.
Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.
A tall, thin online ad unit. The IAB guidelines recommend two sizes of skyscrapers: 120 x 600 and 160 x 600.
A fee charged to advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.
Identical in size and feel to credit cards, smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card. These chips hold a variety of information, from stored (monetary)-value used for retail and vending machines, to secure information and applications for higher-end operations such as medical/healthcare records. The different types of cards being used today are contact, contactless and combination cards. Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader. Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience. A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card. Specific to interactive television, the viewer can insert smart cards into the set-top box to trigger the box to decrypt contact programming.
Software that detects capabilities of the user’s browser (looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth).
Aggregating, rating, describing, and publishing “bookmarks” – links to Web pages or other online content
Marketing tactic that taps into the growth of social networks, encouraging users to adopt and pass along widgets or other content modules created by a brand, or to add a brand to the user’s social circle of friends.
An online destination that gives users a chance to connect with one or more groups of friends, facilitating sharing of content, news, and information among them. Examples of social networks include Facebook and LinkedIn.
Content generated by a third party (typically professional) and will denote the source. An example may be a new car review provided by General Motors but hosted onCarTV.com.
Location on a page of a site in which an ad can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. There can be multiple spaces on a single page.
Term describing unsolicited commercial e-mail.
Software built into e-mail gateways as well as e-mail client applications designed to identify and remove unsolicited commercial messages from incoming e-mail before the end user sees them.
A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Web site that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions.
1) a sponsor is an advertiser who has sponsored an ad and, by doing so, has also helped sponsor or sustain the Web site itself; 2) an advertiser that has a special relationship with the Web site and supports a specific feature of a Web site, such as a writer’s column or a collection of articles on a particular subject.
Sponsored content can include entries on blogs that promote a specific brand or product.
Sponsorship represents custom content and/or experiences created for an advertiser which may or may not include ad unties (i.e., display advertising, brand logos, advertorial and pre-roll video).
Components that are displayed as very persistent graphics such as with a player surrounding skin. Sponsorship graphics are generally displayed throughout the entirety of the content play. Sometimes the sponsorship graphic remains interactive and will behave like an invitation unit allowing viewers to explore deeper ad units such as the embedded interactive.
Computer software that is installed surreptitiously to intercept or take partial control over the user’s interaction with a computer, without the user’s informed consent. Spyware programs can collect various types of information, such as Internet surfing habits, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, and redirecting web browser activity. The software usually does not contain generally accepted standards of notice describing what the purpose and/or behavior of the software is nor does is usually contain visible or functioning choice mechanisms for complete uninstall. The programs are typically characterized by behaviors that can be considered deceptive if not harmful to the user and/or his computer.
Static ad placement/Static rotation
1) ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; 2) embedded ads.
A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.
1) technology that permits continuous audio and video delivered to a computer from a remote Web site; 2) an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files. The host or source compresses, then “streams” small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.
Streaming media player
In the interactive advertising context, a streaming media player is a software program that can retrieve audio and video files over a network and begin playback before the entire media file has been downloaded. Some examples are Real Player™, Windows Media and Quick Time Player.
An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre-cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.
Exploring the World Wide Web.
Content sourced from a professional third party, examples may include syndicated television shows, news footage from AP or Reuters, etc, and distributed through a multitude of outlets observing strict ownership rights.
A dedicated, typically corporate, high-speed (1.54 megabits/second) Internet connection.
A very high-speed (45 megabits/second or higher) dedicated, corporate Internet connection.
Electronic commerce via interactive television.
(Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The software protocols that run the Internet, determining how packets of data travel from origin to destination.
The intended audience for an ad, usually defined in terms of specific demographics (age, sex, income, etc.) product purchase behavior, product usage or media usage.
an advertisement that is shown only to users exhibiting specific attributes or in a specific context or at a particular time of day.
Terms & Conditions
The details of the contract accompanying an insertion order. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines of standard terms & conditions for Internet advertising for media buys.
Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of “short” (160 characters or fewer) text messages, using the Short Message Service, from mobile phones. See SMS.
Textual ad impressions
The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable “auto load images” in their graphical browser. When they reach a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the advertiser’s message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.
Third-party ad server
Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.
The amount of data transmitted through Internet connectors in response to a given request.
A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors only on certain days of the week or times of the day (also known as Day Parting).
Time Spent Listening (ATSL) : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The average number of hours for each session lasting more than one minute within a time period.
Tracer or tag which is attached by the receiving server to the address (URL) of a page requested by a user. A token lasts only through a continuous series of requests by a user, regardless of the length of the interval between requests. Tokens can be used to count unique users.
Tracking Assets: A metric specific to Mobile Advertising
(Noun): The flow of data over a network, or visitors to a Web site
The successful response to a page request; also when a browser receives a complete page of content from a Web server.
An ad that is displayed between Web pages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial.
Transitional pop up
An ad that pops up in a separate ad window between content pages.
A command from the host server that notifies the viewer’s set-top box that interactive content is available at this point. The viewer is notified about the available interactive content via an icon or clickable text. Once clicked by using the remote control, the trigger disappears and more content or a new interface appears on the TV screen.
(Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually HTTP), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name) and format (usually HTML or CGI).
The process of embedding unique identifiers into URLs contained in HTML content. These identifiers are recognized by Web servers on subsequent browser requests. Identifying visitors through information in the URLs should also allow for an acceptable calculation of visits, if caching is avoided.
The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad in a specified time period.
An identified and unduplicated Cookied Browser that accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. This definition requires taking account for the potentially inflationary impact of cookie deletion among certain of the cookied browsers that access Internet content.
A count of unique identifiers…that represents unduplicated instances of Internet activity (generally visits) to Internet content or advertising during a measurement period.
An unduplicated computing device that is used to access Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. A count of unduplicated devices necessarily accounts for multiple browser usage on an individual computer or other computing device.
See Unique Visitors
Unique individual or browser which has accessed a site or application and has been served unique content and/or ads such as e-mail, newsletters, interstitials or pop-under ads. Unique visitors can be identified by user registration, cookies, or third-party measurement like ComScore or Nielsen. Reported unique visitors should filter out bots.See iab.net for the audience reach measurement guidelines.
Unique listeners/streamers : A metric specific to Digital Audio
The size of the audience for a given audio program, piece of content, or advertising message. Typically ‘listeners’ and ‘streamers’ are interchangeable.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a 3rd generation (3G) wireless transmission protocol that enables text, data, and speech services to mobile computer and phone users.
Total population of audience being measured.
Unresolved IP addresses
IP addresses that do not identify their 1st or 2nd level domain. Unresolved IP addresses should be aggregated and reported as such. See also domain.
To send data from a computer to a network. An example of uploading data is sending e-mail.
Internet bulletin-board application.
An individual with access to the World Wide Web.
Content created by the public at large, generally not professionally edited, and directly uploaded to a site like YouTube or MySpace.
User Ad Requests: A metric specific to Mobile Advertising
A user ad request is the result of an active or passive act on the part of the user of a mobile marketing channel. The user may explicitly call for the ad to be delivered, or a request to the ad delivery system is triggered based on other user’s actions.
User agent string
A field in a server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request.
User centric measurement
Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample of Web users.
Information contributed by an individual which usually includes characteristics such as the person’s age, gender, zip code and often much more. A site’s registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor’s behavior within that site.
The Digital Video Ad Serving Template (VAST)
The digital video ad serving template (VAST) provides a standardized method for communicating the status of a video ad back to the ad servers in the case where the ad is served from a dynamically selected ad server. It is specifically designed for on-demand video player where the ad response is parsed prior to play.
(Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
Programming language designed to be a 3D analog to HTML.
Video Game Console
An interactive entertainment computer or electric device that manipulates the video display signal of a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a game. The term video game console is typically used solely for playing video games, but the new generation of consoles may play various types of media such as music, TV shows, and movies.
Number of Video players that have been placed by a user onto their page. Also called embed, grab or post. A video player is a type of Widget.
A video ad is an advertisement that contains video. There are several different types of video ads:
Video on demand
Video on Demand, usually refers to services offered by cable companies through set-top boxes.
A video player is a computer program that translates data into video for viewing.
Person viewing content or ads on the Web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.
1) any advertising that propagates itself; 2) advertising and/or marketing techniques that “spread” like a virus by getting passed on from consumer to consumer and market to market.
Online video clips (typically short and humorous) passed via links from one person to another.
Three-dimensional computerized environments that multiple users can explore and interact with via “avatars,” characters representing themselves. Online games like World of Warcraft take place in virtual worlds, but the term is often used to define services that are open-ended and geared for socializing, as opposed to the more goal-oriented environments of online games.
A single continous set of activity attributable to a cookied browser or user (if registration-based or a panel participant) resulting in one or more pulled texts and/or graphics downloads from a site.
The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, Web page or Web site during a single session.
Individual or browser which accesses a Web site within a specific time period.
(Wide Area Network)
Connectivity between a number of computers not located at the same physical location.
(Wireless Application Protocol)
A specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular mobile telephones, PDAs and others access and browse Internet-based content.
(Wireless Applications Service Provider)
An organization that provides content and applications for wireless devices.
A wireless WAN standard (IEEE 802.16) designed to provide portable (eventually mobile) wireless broadband access. Single WIMAX antennas can provide coverage over large physical areas, making deployment potentially very cost effective. Although not widely available as of 2007, sometimes considered a potential competitor to cable modems and DSL for residential broadband.
A web crawler (also known as an ”automatic indexer”, ”bot”, ”Web spider”, ”Web robot”) is a software program which visits Web pages in a methodical, automated manner.
The virtual location (domain) for an organization’s or individual’s presence on the World Wide Web.
Real-time or pre-recorded delivery of a live event’s audio, video, or animation over the Internet.
A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content (media), including text, video, music, audio, images, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via the Internet through an address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.
Any of a family of wireless LAN data standards (IEEE 802.11) used fairly ubiquitously for corporate and home connectivity. Also available as “hotspots” in public areas such as cafes and airport terminals, either for free or for a one-time use charge or subscription fee.
A small application designed to reside on a PC desktop (Mac OS X or Windows Vista) or within a Web-based portal or social network site (e.g., MySpace or Facebook) offering useful or entertaining functionality to the end user.
Widget and Social Media Application Metrics
The following metrics apply specifically to widgets and social media applications. These supplementary metrics offer advertisers a greater insight into ROI for all widget and social media application campaigns.
(eXtensible Markup Language) A richer more dynamic successor to HTML utilizing SGML or HTML type tags to structure information. XML is used for transferring data and creating applications on the Web. See SGML and HTML.
The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page. Also called ad click rate.
Yield and Revenue Management is the process of understanding, anticipating and influencing advertiser and consumer behavior in order to maximize profits through better selling, pricing, packaging and inventory management, while delivering value to advertisers and site users.